“Niu-Chang-Chih” (Antrodia cinnanomea) is a medicinal mushroom that has only been collected from the aromatic tree, Cinnamomum kanehirai, which is native to Taiwan. A total of 105 Taiwan patent applications and patents for “Niu-Chang-Chih” were collected and analyzed. Patent applications and granted patents claiming newly identified functional components from “Niu-Chang-Chih,” biologically pure cultures of the mushroom strain, and cultivation of “Niu-Chang-Chih” were examined. Several applications and patents claim identified active compounds from “Niu-Chang- Chih,” which provide better patent protection. These newly identified functional compounds include cyclohexanones, maleic and succinic acid derivatives, labdane diterpenoids, and benzenoids. Newly identified functional proteins include a glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (GFD), a glycoprotein named ACA1, and a laccase. Newly identified functional polysaccharides include ACP1, ACP2, and ACP3. The number of patents for newly identified compounds and their uses are expected to continue growing.