Protein misfolding and aggregation into nano-scale ordered amyloid fibrils is one of the most exciting field of Biochemistry. The correct folding is essential for function of proteins and thus, existence of living systems. An effective protein quality control in living system recognizes and degrades misfolded protein quickly and prevents aggregation. Dysfunction or impaired function of this quality control system may result in deposition of protein aggregates. A number of diseases have been linked to deposition of insoluble amyloid aggregates in the brain or other organs. Recently, researchers have reported nano-based therapeutic options and early detection techniques for amyloid diseases. Moreover, thermodynamics of misfolding and aggregation has provided important clue for drug development. Researchers across the globe are working on the development of therapeutic strategies to combat protein aggregation diseases. In the current review, we aim to bring together recent developments about protein misfolding, aggregation and therapeutics against protein misfolding/ aggregation diseases.