Despite aggressive multimodal strategies, the prognosis in patients affected by primary brain tumors is still very unfavorable. Glial tumors seem to be able to create a favorable environment for the invasion of neoplastic cells into the cerebral parenchyma when they interact with the extracellular matrix via cell surface receptors. The major problem in drug delivery into the brain is due to the presence of the blood brain barrier which limits drug penetration. Nanotechnology involves the design, synthesis and characterization of materials that have a functional organization at least in one dimension on the nanometer scale. Nanoengineered devices in medical applications are designed to interface and interact with cells and tissues at the molecular level. Nanoparticle systems can represent ideal devices for delivery of specific compounds to brain tumors, across the blood brain barrier. In this brief review, we report the results of studies related to the emerging novel applications of nanoparticle systems in diagnosis and treatment of primary brain tumors, and also the patents of studies that adopt nanoparticle systems as drug delivery carriers in brain tumor diagnosis and therapy.