Over the past several years, immunization and treatment of infectious diseases has undergone a paradigm shift. Stemming from the vaccine research and development, not only a large number of disease-specific vaccines have been developed, but also enormous efforts have been made to improve the effectiveness of vaccines in order to provide optimal immunization. Introduction of nanotechnology and the development of nanocarrier-based vaccines have started to receive a lot of attention in order to provide effective immunization through better targeting and by triggering antibody response at the cellular level. Also, in the past several years, attention is placed on routes of vaccine administration in order to induce both mucosal and systemic immunity against the pathogen. Through judicious selection of the nanocarrier systems and the vaccine antigen, an optimal immunization and protection can be induced. This review article focuses on the patented applications of nanocarrier-based vaccine formulations and delivery. We have examined the United States patent literature to select inventions that specifically address this strategic approach for prevention of infectious diseases.