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Current Neurovascular Research


ISSN (Print): 1567-2026
ISSN (Online): 1875-5739

Cellular Balance, Genes,and the Huang Ti Nei Ching Su Wen

Author(s): Kenneth Maiese

Volume 3 , Issue 4 , 2006

Page: [247 - 248] Pages: 2

DOI: 10.2174/156720206778792920

Price: $65


The development of alternative therapies as well as strategies directed to prevent the onset of new illnesses is rapidly taking hold in Western Medicine and is evident not only at a more "grass roots" level with individual care takers, but also on a national scale with the introduction of centers such as the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine of the National Institutes of Health. Interestingly, the origins of such medical disciplines may have begun with the great text of ancient Chinese Medicine known as Huang Ti Nei Ching Su Wen "The Yellow Emperors Classic of Internal Medicine". The Nei Ching is considered by many to be one of the oldest if not the first medical text, but precise dating and documentation of its initial introduction remain in question. From the beginning of the existence of the text, the author of the book was believed to be one of Chinas initial rulers during the final centuries B.C.E., the Yellow Emperor Huang Ti, who is worshipped as the father of Chinese Medicine. Since multiple authors are believed to have contributed to the work over a course of the next hundreds of years, the present text with its translation into a Western interpretation may possibly stray by a large extent from the original version The Nei Ching begins with a discussion between the Yellow Emperor Huang Ti and his Minister Chi Pai to introduce the philosophy of Chinese Medicine, such as the concepts of the five agents doctrine and the opposing effects of the Yin and Yang that states opposite ends of a spectrum are vital for change as well as internal balance. These concepts are believed to illuminate the visionary aspects of the work that focused upon the climate, the environment, and behavior as precipitants of disease and the primary natural laws that govern illness. Furthermore, the objective to preserve and protect an individuals well being began to surface with descriptions that outline methods to normalize emotions, employ balanced diets, maintain personal hygiene, consume clean water and fresh food, and to incorporate regular exercise into ones daily regimen. Many of the teachings of the Nei Ching appear to have seamlessly transcended time, especially with todays health care and the intense focus upon disease prevention. For example, bolstered by sophisticated clinical and basic research studies, regular exercise is recommended as preventative therapy for all individuals, irrespective of ones age. The incorporation of daily physical activity into an individuals daily schedule has been shown, or at least strongly suggestive for some conditions, to prevent a multitude of disorders that range from cardiovascular disease to dementia and may significantly reduce the risk of premature death. Physical fitness can involve aerobic exercise that requires the body to transport and use oxygen during exercise or anaerobic exercise that produces energy in the absence of oxygen. Although it has been noted that an individuals well being can be improved with minimal energy expenditures as low as 700 kcal per week, an average energy expenditure of approximately 200 kcal per day is recommended for improved cardiac, musculoskeletal, and mental function that is adjusted for any pre-existing physical disabilities. The advantages of daily exercise may be evident over time through an individuals enhanced cardiovascular performance, cognitive function, or weight management, but the initial benefits must begin at the cellular level to eventually be translated into improved clinical well being and the possible prevention of disease. In this issue of Current Neurovascular Research, both our original articles and review papers elucidate novel mechanisms that potentially are required for cellular homeostasis and overall clinical health maintenance. For example, when one considers preventive therapeutic strategies to block cell injury during disorders such as diabetes that can lead to chronic elevations in glucose, Okouchi et al. demonstrate that the cytoprotective effects of insulin to maintain human brain endothelial cell survival may rest heavily upon cellular parameters that regulate phosphatidylinositol 3- kinase signaling and nuclear NF-E2-related factor 2 translocation to maintain cellular redox balance. Interestingly, another preventive treatment modality necessary for diabetics in addition to the sometimes required insulin administration is a daily exercise program. Ding et al. show that one potential benefit from exercise, at least in a model of focal cerebral ischemia, occurs initially at the cellular level. In animals subjected to daily treadmill activity for thirty minutes over a three week course, brain infarct size is remarkably decreased......

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