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Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1568-0266
ISSN (Online): 1873-4294

Role of Active Drug Transporters in Refractory Multiple Myeloma

Author(s): Marco Tucci, Cosima Quatraro, Franco Dammacco and Franco Silvestris

Volume 9 , Issue 2 , 2009

Page: [218 - 224] Pages: 7

DOI: 10.2174/156802609787521625

Price: $65

Abstract

Drug resistance is a major drawback for cancer chemotherapy protocols and previous studies have demonstrated the overexpression of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) as mechanism by which myeloma cells develop multidrug resistance (MDR). However, other molecules may apparently promote MDR in multiple myeloma (MM). They include both lung resistance-related protein (LRP) and p53 activation. The inhibition of P-gp in MM patients treated with melphalan (PAM) has been associated to increased toxicity, whereas defective apoptosis due to down-modulation of the NF-kB is a feature of MDR+ myeloma cells. On the contrary, clinical trials with proteasome inhibitors have been successfully carried out to overcome MDR despite their toxicity profile. Recently, sigma receptors (R)S, namely R1 and R2, have been found to be overexpressed in breast cancer cells. In addition, their levels correlate with both P-gp upregulation and MDR development. By contrast, selective inhibitors of RS as PB28, disrupt the P-gp signals and restore the apoptosis machinery in malignant cells. We have reviewed the major pathogenetic events promoting MDR in MM and focused on the RS as potential mechanism driving this function. We demonstrate that MDR+ myeloma cells overexpress the R2 and that the treatment with PB28 induces P-gp down-modulation through the activation of the caspases enrolled in both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Thus, R2 inhibitors may be tentatively proposed for the treatment of PAM-resistant MM patients.

Keywords: MDR, ABC transporters, multiple myeloma, sigma receptors


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