The central nervous system (CNS) elicits limited capacity to recover from injury. Though considerable efforts and means have been deployed to find treatments for neurological diseases, disorders and injuries, there is still no cure for these ailments, and new alternatives for therapy must be explored. Because they generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system, neural stem cells (NSCs) hold the promise to cure a broad range of neurological diseases and injuries. With the confirmation that neurogenesis occurs in the adult brain and NSCs reside in the adult CNS, new treatments for neurological diseases and injuries are being considered. Particularly, the transplantation of adult-derived neural progenitor and stem cells to restore brain functions. In this manuscript, we will review the recent developments in adult neurogenesis and NSCs, and patent applications filed in relation to discoveries made in this new field of research.