Drug eluting stents (DESs) have considerably reduced the occurrence of restenosis followed by balloon angioplasty. But the recent concerns of late stent thrombosis have rekindled an interest in developing an improved stent. A multidisciplinary approach of nanotechnology and biotechnology is the next frontier for this. This presents a comprehensive overview of the evolving nanobiotechnological approaches for biomedical implants and articulates the potential of these technologies to design the next generation stent. A diverse range of nano-delivery systems are being used to transport drugs, genes and oligonucleotides from the stent surface to remodel the damaged local vascular biology. In addition, the review encompasses the upcoming technologies which include modulation of the stent surface nano-topography by regulating the nanocoatings, use of nanotubes to increase the biocompatibility and promote endothelial cell proliferation, inhibit smooth muscle cell growth, and deliver drugs.
Keywords: Restenosis, stent thrombosis, stent base therapy, nano-biotechnology, polymeric nanoparticles, nano-topography, nanotubes, nanocoatings, Drug eluting stents (DESs), balloon angioplasty, bare metal stent (BMS), acute ST-segment, myocardial infarction, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), Biofunctionalized Stents, Antibody Coating, Gene Delivery, Bioresorbable Polymeric Stents, Non-Viral Liposomal Particles, Polymeric Nanoscaffolds, Nano-Carriers, Antisense Restenosis Therapy, Regulate Surface Roughness