Neuronal degeneration is closely associated with cognitive, motor and visual dysfunctions. Neuroprotective strategies have been investigated with the view to being employed as potential therapy for patients with these disabilities. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a 50-kDa secreted glycoprotein and a non-inhibitory member of the serine protease inhibitor (SERPIN) gene family. PEDF is detected in a broad range of human tissues, including almost all brain areas, and has been shown to have strong neuroprotective properties for various types of neurons including cerebellar granule neurons, hippocampal neurons, striatal neurons, retinal neurons and spinal cord motor neurons. These observations raise the possibility that application of PEDF may be helpful in designing new therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinsons disease, Huntingtons disease, Alzheimers disease and brain ischemia.