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Current Diabetes Reviews

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1573-3998
ISSN (Online): 1875-6417

Treatment of Type 1 Diabetic Patients with Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) and GLP-1R Agonists

Author(s): Urd Kielgast, Jens J. Holst and Sten Madsbad

Volume 5 , Issue 4 , 2009

Page: [266 - 275] Pages: 10

DOI: 10.2174/157339909789804413

Price: $65

Abstract

GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) is a peptide hormone secreted from endocrine cells in the intestinal mucosa in response to meals. The major effects of GLP-1 are to increase glucose-induced insulin secretion and reduce glucagon release, but GLP-1 also inhibits gastric emptying rate and reduces appetite and bodyweight in obese subjects. In vivo studies using animal models of type 2 diabetes and in vitro studies using human islet cells have suggested that GLP-1 or GLP-1 analogues are also able to increase ß-cell mass, but in animal models of type 1 diabetes, there is much less evidence for a ß-cell preserving effect. This review summarizes the present knowledge of GLP-1 and its analogues regarding its role as a possible treatment in patients with type 1 diabetes. The studies that address the effect of GLP-1 and GLP-1 analogues on ß-cell mass in both type 2 and type 1 diabetes, as well as the potential of GLP-1 as an adjuvant therapy in islet cell transplantation, will be reviewed. Suggestions for future studies of GLP-1 treatment in type 1 diabetes may include early treatment in order to preserve ß-cell mass and prolong the remission period, but should also take a potential insulin sparing effect and changes in the risk of hypoglycemia into account.

Keywords: Type 1 diabetes, GLP-1, Glucagon, ß-cell mass, Residual insulin secretion, Glycemic control


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