Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by impaired insulin action, progressive β-cell dysfunction as well as abnormalities in pancreatic α-cell function and postprandial substrate delivery. These pathophysiologic defects result in both persistent and progressive hyperglycemia, resulting in increased risk of both microvascular and cardiovascular complications. Traditional treatments for type 2 diabetes have focused on impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance. These strategies are typically used in a stepwise manner: employing oral glucose lowering agents, followed by insulin therapy. This traditional approach fails to address the progressive decline in β-cell function. Moreover, these therapies are often associated with weight gain in overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Both exogenous insulin and insulin secretagogues are associated with an increased risk of hypoglycemia. Recently, new treatments that leverage the glucoregulatory effects of incretin hormones, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 have been introduced. Both incretin mimetics and DPP-4 inhibitors address both the underlying pathophysiology and overcome several of the limitations of established therapies by providing improvements in glycemia, and control of body weight with minimal risk of hypoglycemia.