Application of nanomaterials in drug delivery is a rapidly developing area of interest. The main intention in the development of these drug delivery vehicles is to successfully know the targeted delivery-related efforts and carrying drugs to the required sites of therapeutic action with reduction in adverse side effects. The task for targeted drug delivery to reach pathological are-as has increased advances in nanomedicine. But the high toxicity of uncoated nanoparticles restricts the use in humans. So, to reduce toxicity, the encapsulation of nanoparticles is done with bio compatible materials. There are many efficient delivery systems thathave been developed in which nanoparticles are loaded with the cancer drug involvingbi-layer molecules. The ﬁelds of nanotechnology has always played a crucial role in electronics, biology and medicine. Its application can be ap-praised, as it involves the materials to be designed at atomic and molecular level.This article reviews different types of nano- materials used as delivery vehicles for chemotherapeutic agents and their mechanism of action that improve the therapeutic efficacy of the drugs. The recent scientiﬁc advances in the area of chemotherapy are also discussed with emphasizingthe fu-ture prospects in cancer treatments.