Breast cancer is a heterogeneous malignancy and is the second leading cause of mortality among women around the world. Increasing the resistance to anti-cancer drugs in breast cancer cells persuades researchers to search the novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of this malignancy. Among the novel methods, therapeutic peptides that target and disrupt tumor cells have been of great interest. Therapeutic peptides are short amino acid monomer chains with high specificity to bind and modulate a protein interaction of interest. Several advantages of peptides, such as specific binding on tumor cells surface, low molecular weight, and low toxicity on normal cells, make the peptides appealing therapeutic agents against solid tumors, particularly breast cancer. Also, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) describes therapeutic peptides as a suitable candidate for the treatment of drug-resistant breast cancer. In this review, we attempt to review the different therapeutic peptides against breast cancer cells that can be used in the treatment and diagnosis of the malignancy. Meanwhile, we presented an overview of peptide vaccines that have been developed for the treatment of breast cancer.