Coronavirus is an enveloped, non-segmented, positive-polarity and single-stranded
RNA virus. It has four types of genera that infect mammals and birds, with only alpha and beta
types found to affect humans with varying severity. A specific clade of beta coronaviruses is reported
as lethal zoonotic viruses and has created major epidemic troubles, starting with the severe acute
respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002, then the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in
2012, and lastly Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 2019. However, many neurological
complications reported in COVID-19 patients have highlighted a critical pattern of the severe acute
respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Awareness of such an association could create
new insight to consider neurological manifestations as a COVID-19 differential diagnosis during
the pandemic period of COVID-19 to avoid delayed diagnosis and prevent further transmission.
This mini-review aims to collect the current knowledge regarding the mechanism behind the neuroinvasive
capacity of SARS-CoV-2, to summarize the common documented neurological symptoms
and associated complications in COVID-19 patients, and to review the impact of neurological
manifestations on COVID-19 mortality.
Keywords: COVID-19, coronavirus, neurology, headache, single-stranded RNA virus, neurological diseases.