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Current Pediatric Reviews

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1573-3963
ISSN (Online): 1875-6336

Review Article

Gut Microbiota and Gender in Autism Spectrum Disorders

Author(s): Rafail I. Kushak* and Harland S. Winter

Volume 16 , Issue 4 , 2020

Page: [249 - 254] Pages: 6

DOI: 10.2174/1573396316999200727123026

Price: $65

Abstract

Gender dimorphism in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is well known; however, the reasons for gender differences in autism are poorly understood. There are several hypotheses that might explain male prevalence in ASD, including increased levels of androgens, “extreme male brain,” and a combination of elevated levels of prenatal testosterone in conjunction with prenatal stress. In this comprehensive review, differences in the gut microbiome and metabolome in humans and animals are described to explain gender differences in individuals with ASD, effects on behavior and social interactions and the impact of antibiotics, probiotics and fecal transplants. The bidirectional relationship between sex hormones and intestinal microbiota could also be relevant. Such interactions have been described in autoimmune diseases, but thus far, are not implicated in ASD. Since intestinal microbiota may affect behavior, it is possible that the prevalence of ASD in boys may be associated with more significant changes in the intestinal microbiome than in affected girls.

Keywords: Autism, gender dimorphism, intestinal microbiota, metabolome, behavior, sex hormones.


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