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Current Medicinal Chemistry

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 0929-8673
ISSN (Online): 1875-533X

Review Article

Role of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARγ) in Different Disease States: Recent Updates

Author(s): Suvadeep Mal, Ashish Ranjan Dwivedi, Vijay Kumar, Naveen Kumar, Bhupinder Kumar and Vinod Kumar*

Volume 28 , Issue 16 , 2021

Published on: 16 July, 2020

Page: [3193 - 3215] Pages: 23

DOI: 10.2174/0929867327666200716113136

Price: $65

Abstract

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), a ligand dependant transcription factor, is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. PPAR exists in three isoforms i.e. PPAR alpha (PPARα), PPAR beta (PPARβ), and PPAR gamma (PPARγ). These are multi-functional transcription factors and help in regulating inflammation, type 2 diabetes, lipid concentration in the body, metastasis, and tumor growth or angiogenesis. Activation of PPARγ causes inhibition of growth of cultured human breast, gastric, lung, prostate, and other cancer cells. PPARγ is mainly involved in fatty acid storage, glucose metabolism, and homeostasis and adipogenesis regulation. A large number of natural and synthetic ligands bind to PPARγ and modulate its activity. Ligands such as thiazolidinedione, troglitazone, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone effectively bind to PPARγ; however, most of these were found to display severe side effects such as hepatotoxicity, weight gain, cardiovascular complications and bladder tumor. Now the focus is shifted towards the development of dual-acting or pan PPAR ligands. The current review article describes the functions and role of PPARγ in various disease states. In addition, recently reported PPARγ ligands and pan PPAR ligands were discussed in detail. It is envisaged that the present review article may help in the development of potent PPAR ligands with no or minimal side effects.

Keywords: proliferator-activated receptor, PPAR gamma, pan PPAR ligands, diabetes, cancer, bladder tumor.


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