Generic placeholder image

Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening


ISSN (Print): 1386-2073
ISSN (Online): 1875-5402

Research Article

Evaluation of Blood Oxidant/Antioxidant Changes and Testicular Toxicity after Subacute Exposure to Cadmium in Albino Rats: Therapeutic Effect of Nigella sativa Seed Extracts

Author(s): Ikenna Kingsley Uchendu* and Henshaw Uchechi Okoroiwu

Volume 24 , Issue 1 , 2021

Published on: 26 May, 2020

Page: [79 - 87] Pages: 9

DOI: 10.2174/1386207323666200526134923

Price: $65


Aim and Objective: Cells and tissues of the body are prone to oxidative damage as a result of an increased level of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen radical beyond the detoxifying ability of the endogenous antioxidant system. This study aimed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of methanolic extracts of Nigella sativa (MENS) against cadmium-induced blood oxidative stress and testicular toxicity in albino rats.

Materials and Methods: Twenty-five (25) male albino rats, weighing (200 ± 20g), were randomly grouped into five groups (A-E). Group B (Negative Control) received intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride (CdCl2, 5 mg/kg) only, group C received CdCl2 and low dose MENS (300 mg/kg, oral), group D received CdCl2 and high dose MENS (600 mg/kg, oral), group E (Positive control) received CdCl2 and Vitamin C (200 mg/kg, oral), for 14 days. No treatment was administered to group A (Normal control). The oxidative state of the blood was assessed by measuring the blood levels or activities of MDA, CAT, GSH and SOD; while testicular injury was assessed by measuring serum testosterone level using ELISA. The testes were harvested for histopathological examination.

Results: The results showed that cadmium induced a marked elevation in the level of MDA, and a decrease in SOD, CAT and GSH levels or activities (p<0.05 or p<0.01); but no significant alteration in the serum testosterone level was found (p>0.05); Histopathological studies on the testes showed that cadmium significantly induced testicular injury, which was however ameliorated by the seed extract of N. sativa.

Conclusion: We conclude that N. sativa seed extract is potentially testiculoprotective and attenuates oxidative stress against harmful chemical toxins such as cadmium.

Keywords: Blood antioxidants, CdCl2, testicular toxicity, oxidative stress, medicinal plants, Nigella sativa.

Yu, C.; Ling, Q.; Yan, S.; Jing, L.; Zhongda, C.; Zhenyu, P. Cadmium contamination in various environmental materials in an industrial area, Hangzhou, China. Chem. Spec. Bioavail., 2010, 22(1), 35-42.
Rafati Rahimzadeh, M.; Rafati Rahimzadeh, M.; Kazemi, S.; Moghadamnia, A.A. Cadmium toxicity and treatment: An update. Caspian J. Intern. Med., 2017, 8(3), 135-145.
[PMID: 28932363]
Sharma, H.; Blessy, N.R.; Mathew, B. The characteristics, toxicity and effects of cadmium. IJNN, 2015, 3, 1-9.
Bernhoft, R.A. Cadmium toxicity and treatment. ScientificWorldJournal, 2013, 2013394652
[] [PMID: 23844395]
Pizzino, G.; Irrera, N.; Cucinotta, M.; Pallio, G.; Mannino, F.; Arcoraci, V.; Squadrito, F.; Altavilla, D.; Bitto, A. Oxidative stress: harms and benefits for human health. Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev., 2017, 20178416763
[] [PMID: 28819546]
Ahmad, A.; Husain, A.; Mujeeb, M.; Khan, S.A.; Najmi, A.K.; Siddique, N.A.; Damanhouri, Z.A.; Anwar, F. A review on therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa: A miracle herb. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed., 2013, 3(5), 337-352.
[] [PMID: 23646296]
Hosseini, M.; Mohammadpour, T.; Karami, R.; Rajaei, Z.; Reza Sadeghnia, H.; Soukhtanloo, M. Effects of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa on scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairment in rats and its possible mechanism. Chin. J. Integr. Med., 2015, 21(6), 438-444.
[] [PMID: 24584756]
Amin, B.; Hosseinzadeh, H. Black cumin (Nigella sativa) and its active constituent, thymoquinone: An overview on the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Planta Med., 2016, 82(1-2), 8-16.
[PMID: 26366755]
Ajibesin, K.K. Dacryodes edulis (G. Don) HJ. Lam: A review on its medicinal, phytochemical and economic properties. Res. J. Med. Plant, 2011, 5(1), 32-41.
Ekeigwe, I.B.; Ikegwuonu, I.C.; Uchendu, I.K.; Uchenna, C.A.; Okongwu, U.C. Curcuma longa aqueous extract prevents myocardial injury in hypercholesterolaemic albino rat. Ukr. Biochem. J., 2019, 91(4), 50-57.
Babaei, H.A.; Motamedifar, M.; Khalifat, S.; Mohammadi, A.; Khosrow, Z.; Motamedifar, A. In vitro study of antibacterial property and cytotoxic effects of aqueous, ethanolic, methanolic, and hydroalcoholic extracts of fenugreek seed. Pak. J. Med. Health Sci., 2018, 12(2), 906-910.
Lorke, D. A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing. Arch. Toxicol., 1983, 54(4), 275-287.
[] [PMID: 6667118]
Trease, G.; Evans, S.M. Pharmacognosy, 15th ed; English Language Book Society.: Bailliere Tindall: London, 2002, pp. 23-67.
Sofowora, A. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa; Spectrum Books Ltd.: Ibadan, Nigeria, 1993, pp. 191-289.
Harborne, J.B. Phytochemicals Methods; Chapman and Hall Ltd.: London, 1973, pp. 49-188.
Nna, V.U.; Ujah, G.A.; Mohamed, M.; Etim, K.B.; Igba, B.O.; Augustine, E.R.; Osim, E.E. Cadmium chloride-induced testicular toxicity in male wistar rats; prophylactic effect of quercetin, and assessment of testicular recovery following cadmium chloride withdrawal. Biomed. Pharmacother., 2017, 94, 109-123.
[] [PMID: 28756368]
Mihara, M.; Uchiyama, M. Determination of malonaldehyde precursor in tissues by thiobarbituric acid test. Anal. Biochem., 1978, 86(1), 271-278.
[] [PMID: 655387]
Koroliuk, M.A.; Ivanova, L.I.; Maĭorova, I.G.; Tokarev, V.E. [A method of determining catalase activity] Lab. Delo, 1988, 1(1), 16-19.
[PMID: 2451064]
Roth, E.F., Jr; Gilbert, H.S. The pyrogallol assay for superoxide dismutase: absence of a glutathione artifact. Anal. Biochem., 1984, 137(1), 50-53.
[] [PMID: 6731808]
Avi-Dor, Y.; Lipkin, R. A spectrophotometric method for the determination of reduced glutathione. J. Biol. Chem., 1958, 233(1), 69-72.
[PMID: 13563442]
Engvall, E.; Perlmann, P. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Quantitative assay of immunoglobulin G. Immunochemistry, 1971, 8(9), 871-874.
[] [PMID: 5135623]
Baker, F.J.; Silverton, R.E.; Pallister, C.J. Baker and Silverton’s Introduction to Laboratory Technology, 7th ed; Butterworth-Heinemann: Wobrun, MA, USA, 1998, p. 448.
Li, L.H.; Donald, J.M.; Golub, M.S. Review on testicular development, structure, function, and regulation in common marmoset. Birth Defects Res. B Dev. Reprod. Toxicol., 2005, 74(5), 450-469.
[] [PMID: 16193499]
Kiyuna, L.A.; Albuquerque, R.P.E.; Chen, C.H.; Mochly-Rosen, D.; Ferreira, J.C.B. Targeting mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in heart failure: Challenges and opportunities. Free Radic. Biol. Med., 2018, 129, 155-168.
[] [PMID: 30227272]
Siva, K.; Ramnath, V.; Jeyaprakash, K. Effect of Silymarin on cadmium induced toxicity in rats. World J Pharm Res., 2018, 7, 1193-1205.
Bücker-Neto, L.; Paiva, A.L.S.; Machado, R.D.; Arenhart, R.A.; Margis-Pinheiro, M. Interactions between plant hormones and heavy metals responses. Genet. Mol. Biol., 2017, 40(1)(Suppl. 1), 373-386.
[] [PMID: 28399194]
Erdem, O.; Yazihan, N.; Kocak, M.K.; Sayal, A.; Akcil, E. Influence of chronic cadmium exposure on the tissue distribution of copper and zinc and oxidative stress parameters in rats. Toxicol. Ind. Health, 2016, 32(8), 1505-1514.
[] [PMID: 25647810]
Nemmiche, S.; Guiraud, P. Cadmium-induced oxidative damages in the human BJAB cells correlate with changes in intracellular trace elements levels and zinc transporters expression. Toxicol. In Vitro, 2016, 37, 169-177.
[] [PMID: 27647474]
Thirumoorthy, N.; Shyam Sunder, A.; Manisenthil Kumar, K.; Senthil Kumar, M.; Ganesh, G.; Chatterjee, M. A review of metallothionein isoforms and their role in pathophysiology. World J. Surg. Oncol., 2011, 9, 54.
[] [PMID: 21599891]
Yimer, E.M.; Tuem, K.B.; Karim, A.; Ur-Rehman, K.; Anwar, F. Nigella sativa L. (black cumin): a promising natural remedy for wide range of illnesses. Evid-Based Compl Alt Med, 2019, 2019152863519
Panche, A.N.; Diwan, A.D.; Chandra, S.R. Flavonoids: an overview. J. Nutr. Sci., 2016, 5e47
[] [PMID: 28620474]
Cherrak, S.A.; Mokhtari-Soulimane, N.; Berroukeche, F.; Bensenane, B.; Cherbonnel, A.; Merzouk, H.; Elhabiri, M. In vitro antioxidant versus metal ion chelating properties of flavonoids: A structure-activity investigation. PLoS One, 2016, 11(10)e0165575
[] [PMID: 27788249]
Mahmoud, A.M.; Bautista, R.J.H.; Sandhu, M.A.; Hussein, O.E. Beneficial effects of citrus flavonoids on cardiovascular and metabolic health. In: Oxid Med Cell Longev; , 2019; 2019, p. 548413819.
Kooti, W.; Hasanzadeh-Noohi, Z.; Sharafi-Ahvazi, N.; Asadi-Samani, M.; Ashtary-Larky, D. Phytochemistry, pharmacology, and therapeutic uses of black seed (Nigella sativa). Chin. J. Nat. Med., 2016, 14(10), 732-745.
[] [PMID: 28236403]
Liaudanskas, M.; Viškelis, P.; Raudonis, R.; Kviklys, D.; Uselis, N.; Janulis, V. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of malus domestica leaves. In; TSWJ, 2014, 2014, p. 30621710.
de Jesus, N.Z.T.; de Souza Falcão, H.; Gomes, I.F.; de Almeida Leite, T.J.; de Morais Lima, G.R.; Barbosa-Filho, J.M.; Tavares, J.F.; da Silva, M.S.; de Athayde-Filho, P.F.; Batista, L.M. Tannins, peptic ulcers and related mechanisms. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 2012, 13(3), 3203-3228.
[] [PMID: 22489149]
Abdel-Daim, M.M.; Ghazy, E.W. Effects of Nigella sativa oil and ascorbic acid against oxytetracycline-induced hepato-renal toxicity in rabbits. Iran. J. Basic Med. Sci., 2015, 18(3), 221-227.
[PMID: 25945233]

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy