Generic placeholder image

Current Radiopharmaceuticals

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1874-4710
ISSN (Online): 1874-4729

Review Article

Lung Cancer and Radiological Imaging

Author(s): Annalori Panunzio* and Paolo Sartori

Volume 13 , Issue 3 , 2020

Page: [238 - 242] Pages: 5

DOI: 10.2174/1874471013666200523161849

Abstract

Background: Lung cancer is the neoplasm with the highest prevalence and mortality rates in the world. Most patients with lung cancer that are symptomatic have hemoptysis, coughing, shortness of breath, chest pain and persistent infections. Less than 10% of patients are asymptomatic when the tumor is detected as an incidental finding.

Objective: The present expert review aims to describe the use of radiological imaging modalities for the diagnosis of lung cancer.

Methods: Some papers were selected from the international literature, by using mainly Pubmed as a source.

Results: Chest x-ray (CXR) is the first investigation performed during the workup of suspected lung cancer. In the absence of a rib erosion, CXR cannot distinguish between benign and malignant masses, therefore computed tomography (CT) with contrast enhancement should be performed in order to obtain a correct staging. Magnetic resonance imaging of the chest is considered a secondary approach as the respiratory movement affects the overall results.

Conclusion: Radiological imaging is essential for the management of patients affected by lung cancer.

Keywords: Chest X-ray, computed tomography, MRI, lung cancer, radiological imaging, carcinoid tumour.

Graphical Abstract
[1]
Buccheri, G.; Ferrigno, D. Lung cancer: clinical presentation and specialist referral time. Eur. Respir. J., 2004, 24(6), 898-904.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/09031936.04.00113603] [PMID: 15572529]
[2]
Infante, M.; Lutman, F.R.; Cavuto, S.; Brambilla, G.; Chiesa, G.; Passera, E.; Angeli, E.; Chiarenza, M.; Aranzulla, G.; Cariboni, U.; Alloisio, M.; Incarbone, M.; Testori, A.; Destro, A.; Cappuzzo, F.; Roncalli, M.; Santoro, A.; Ravasi, G. Lung cancer screening with spiral CT: baseline results of the randomized DANTE trial. Lung Cancer, 2008, 59(3), 355-363.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2007.08.040] [PMID: 17936405]
[3]
Ioannou, G. 1.; Doust, J.; Rockey, D.C. Terlipressin for acute esophageal variceal hemorrhage. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev., 2003, (1)CD00214
[4]
Dhand, R.; Tobin, M.J. Inhaled bronchodilator therapy in mechanically ventilated patients Respir. Crit. Care Med., 1997, 156(1), 3-10.
[5]
Owonikoko, T.K.; Ragin, C.C.; Belani, C.P.; Oton, A.B.; Gooding, W.E.; Taioli, E.; Ramalingam, S.S. Lung cancer in elderly patients: an analysis of the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results database. J. Clin. Oncol., 2007, 25, 5570-5577.
[6]
Parkin, D.M.; Bray, F.; Ferlay, J.; Pisani, P. Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J. Clin., 2005, 55, 74-108.
[7]
Okubo, K.; Mark, E.J.; Flieder, D.; Wain, J.C.; Wright, C.D.; Moncure, A.C.; Grillo, H.C. Mathisen, D.J. Bronchoalveolar carcinoma: clinical, radiologic, and pathologic factors and survival. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg., 1999, 118, 702-709.
[8]
Saito, H.; Yamada, K.; Hamanaka, N.; Oshita, F.; Ito, H.; Nakayama, H.; Yokose, T.; Kameda, Y.; Noda, K. Initial findings and progression of lung adenocarcinoma on serial computed tomography scans. J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr., 2009, 33(1), 42-48.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RCT.0b013e3181633509] [PMID: 19188783]
[9]
Zheng, M. Classification and Pathology of Lung Cancer. Surg. Oncol. Clin. N. Am., 2016, 25(3), 447-468.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soc.2016.02.003] [PMID: 27261908]
[10]
Travis, W.D. Pathology of lung cancer. Clin. Chest Med., 2011, 32(4), 669-692.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccm.2011.08.005] [PMID: 22054879]
[11]
The American Thoracic Society and The European Respiratory Society. Pretreatment evaluation of non-small-cell lung cancer. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 1997, 156(1), 320-332.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/ajrccm.156.1.ats156.1] [PMID: 9230769]
[12]
Forster, B.B.; Müller, N.L.; Miller, R.R.; Nelems, B.; Evans, K.G. Neuroendocrine carcinomas of the lung: clinical, radiologic, and pathologic correlation. Radiology, 1989, 170(2), 441-445.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiology.170.2.2536187] [PMID: 2536187]
[13]
Henschke, C.I.; McCauley, D.I.; Yankelevitz, D.F.; Naidich, D.P.; McGuinness, G.; Henschke, C.I. McCauley. D.I.; Yankelevitz. D.F.; Naidich. D.P.; McGuinness. G.; Miettinen, O.S.; Libby, D.M.; Pasmantier, M.W.; Koizumi, J.; Altorki, N.K.; Smith, J.P. Early lung cancer action project: overall design and findings from baseline screening. Lancet, 1999, 354, 99-105.
[14]
Martini, N.; Kris, M.G.; Flehinger, B.J.; Gralla, R.J.; Bains, M.S.; Burt, M.E.; Heelan, R.; McCormack, P.M.; Pisters, K.M.; Rigas, J.R. Preoperative chemotherapy for stage IIIa (N2) lung cancer: the Sloan-Kettering experience with 136 patients. Ann. Thorac. Surg., 1993, 55, 1365-1374.
[15]
Travis, W.D.; Brambilla, E.; Nicholson, A.G.; Yatabe, Y.; Austin, J.H.M.; Beasley, M.B.; Chirieac, L.R.; Dacic, S.; Duhig, E.; Flieder, D.B.; Geisinger, K.; Hirsch, F.R.; Ishikawa, Y.; Kerr, K.M. 14, Noguchi, M.; Pelosi, G.; Powell, C.A.; Tsao, M.S.; Wistuba, I.; WHO Panel. The 2015 World Health organization classification of lung tumors: impact of genetic, clinical and radiologic advances since the 2004 classification. J. Thorac. Oncol., 2015, 10, 1243-1260.
[16]
Onitsuka, H.; Tsukuda, M.; Araki, A.; Murakami, J.; Torii, Y.; Masuda, K. Differentiation of central lung tumor from postobstructive lobar collapse by rapid sequence computed tomography. J. Thorac. Imaging, 1991, 6, 28-31.
[17]
Silvestri, G.A.; Gould, M.K.; Margolis, M.L.; Tanoue, L.T.; McCrory, D.; Toloza, E.; Detterbeck, F. American College of Chest PhysiciansNoninvasive staging of non-small cell lung cancer: ACCP evidencedbased clinical practice guidelines. In: Chest, 2nd edition., 2007, 132, pp. ((3))178S-201S..
[18]
Detterbeck, F.C.; Jantz, M.A.; Wallace, M.; Vansteenkiste, J.; Silvestri, G.A. Invasive mediastinal staging of lung cancer: ACCP evidencebased clinical practice guidelines (2nd edition). In: Chest,; , 2007; 132, . ((3)) (Suppl.), 202S-220S
[19]
Lewis, J.W., Jr; Pearlberg, J.L.; Beute, G.H.; Alpern, M.; Kvale, P.A.; Gross, B.H.; Magilligan, D.J., Jr Can computed tomography of the chest stage lung cancer? Yes and no. Ann. Thorac. Surg., 1990, 49(4), 591-595.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0003-4975(90)90306-Q] [PMID: 2181953]
[20]
Glazer, G.M.; Gross, B.H.; Quint, L.E.; Francis, I.R.; Bookstein, F.L.; Orringer, M.B. Normal mediastinal lymph nodes: number and size according to American Thoracic Society mapping. AJR Am. J. Roentgenol., 1985, 144(2), 261-265.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/ajr.144.2.261] [PMID: 3871268]
[21]
Kramer, H.; Groen, H.J. Current concepts in the mediastinal lymph node staging of nonsmall cell lung cancer. Ann. Surg., 2003, 238(2), 180-188.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.SLA.0000081086.37779.1a] [PMID: 12894010]

© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy