Acidic Pyridinium Inner Salt as a New, Effective and Reusable Catalyst for the One-Pot Three-Component Synthesis of N-substituted 5-aryl-4-benzoyl-3-hydroxy-3-pyrrolin-2-ones in Aqueous Media

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Author(s): Roya Shahnaei, Hassan Kabirifard*

Journal Name: Current Organocatalysis

Abstract:

Background: The present method is facile and effective for the synthesis of N-substituted 5-aryl-4-benzoyl-3-hydroxy-3-pyrrolin-2-one derivatives which are obtained by one-pot three-component condensation reactions of aromatic aldehydes, primary amines and ethyl benzoylpyruvate in the presence of a novel homogeneous catalyst including acidic pyridinium inner salt (PIS) at 50°C in ethanol and water mixture as solvent.

Methods: 5-Aryl-4-benzoyl-3-hydroxy-3-pyrrolin-2-ones were synthesized through a one-pot three-component tandem formation of Schiff base cyclocondensation reaction of aromatic aldehydes, primary amines and ethyl benzoylpyruvate in the presence of 10 mol% of acidic pyridinium inner salt as a catalyst under aqueous ethanol medium at 50°C. All obtained structures were confirmed by their elemental analysis data and IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy.

Results: Three-component synthesis of 5-aryl-4-benzoyl-3-hydroxy-3-pyrrolin-2-ones catalyzed by acidic pyridinium inner salt with aromatic aldehydes, primary amines and ethyl benzoylpyruvate in aqueous ethanol medium at 50°C was prepared. The achieved derivatives (eight entries) were well synthesized in excellent yields.

Conclusion: We found acidic pyridinium inner salt as a proper catalyst for this method. Catalyst Novelty is excellent catalytic activity, easy separation of the reaction mixture by washing with cold water and reusability of the catalyst for six consecutive periods without disrupting the activity of this catalyst system.

Keywords: aromatic aldehyde, primary amine, benzoylpyruvate, acidic pyridinium inner salt, N-substituted 5-aryl-4-benzoyl-3-hydroxy-3-pyrrolin-2-one

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DOI: 10.2174/2213337208666210224124202
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The Effect of Potato Almond Orange Cookies on Their Weight, BMI, Hemoglobin, and Lymphocyte Status of Undernourished Older People during COVID-19 Pandemic

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Author(s): Fatmah*

Journal Name: Current Nutrition & Food Science

Abstract:

Background: Older people is vulnerable to COVID-19 relates to presence of co-morbidities diseases and low immunity.Undernutrition condition making them prone to anemia (low hemoglobin/Hb) and low lymphocyte level will brings a higher risk for COVID-19 infection.

Objective: To assess the effect of potato almond orange cookies on weight, Hb, and lymphocyte levels of undernourished older people amidst the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: This 3-week randomized controlled trial involved 48 subjects > 60 years, divided randomly into treatment group (potato almond orange cookies) and control group (potato almond cookies). Lymphocyte and Hb collected before and after the study. Both groups received nutrition education. Analysis was performed using independent t-test and paired t-test.

Results: Weight gained in the treatment group (0.7 kg) was significantly different from the control group (p=0.002), with 0.3 point change observed in the BMI of the treatment group. Changes were also seen in vitamin C intake in treatment group (+10.3 mg, p = 0.03) and vitamin E intake in both groups (+4.6 mcg, p = 0.001 and +2.9 mcg, p = 0.001, respectively), but not for inter-group. Weight, Hb and lymphocyte level increased in both groups, with the highest weight increased in the treatment group while the highest Hb increased in the control group. The lymphocyte increased 1 point in both groups. Weight, Hb and lymphocyte level differences were insignificant between the two groups.

Conclusion: Potato almond orange consumption tend to increase weight, Hb and lymphocyte level in undernourished older people during COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: Undernourished older people, COVID-19, weight, BMI, Hb level, lymphocyte level

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DOI: 10.2174/1573401317666210224123808
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The Pattern of Carbohydrate Intake Among University Students from Eastern Indonesia Tends to Be Diverse

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Author(s): Siti Helmyati*, Anita Winda Amalia, Haifa Sholihah, Mirasari Kurnia, Savira Kiasaty, Maria Wigati, A.J. Rohana, Wan Rosli Wan Ishak, Noor Aman Hamid, Vasanti Malik, Frank Hu

Journal Name: Current Nutrition & Food Science

Abstract:

Background: Along with the shift in consumption patterns of carbohydrate staple foods in Indonesia, many communities are abandoning local traditional foods such as tubers and sago and turning to white rice.

Objective: Considering the rise of modern living patterns that are loved by teenagers and young adults, the researchers aimed to identify the basic food consumption patterns of adolescents and young people in Indonesia and the factors that influence them.

Methods: The subjects involved in this study were 108 Universitas Gadjah Mada students representing various regions and tribes in Indonesia. The proportion of each part of Indonesia was determined by the proportionate stratified random sampling technique, while the research subjects were selected by purposive sampling. Subjects were interviewed using the semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQ-FFQ). Data on knowledge factors related to nutrition and perceptions were obtained using a separate questionnaire.

Results: The most consumed staple carbohydrate foods are cereals, especially white rice (82%), tubers (10.6%), noodles, pasta and bread (12.3%) and sago (1.8%). Several factors that influence the consumption pattern significantly (p<0.05) are sex, place of origin, and nutritional status.

Conclusions: There is a high dependency on white rice among young adults in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The culture and place of origin have an important role in shaping the pattern of carbohydrate consumption. Strategic interventions are needed to increase youth food diversification.

Keywords: carbohydrate intake, diabetes mellitus prevention, dietary pattern, dietary pattern factors, nutrition knowledge, young adults Short running title: The patterns of carbohydrate intake

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DOI: 10.2174/1573401317666210224123425
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Liposomes as Herbal Compounds Carrier: An update review

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Author(s): Mahshid Jahadi, Kourosh Keighobadi, Behnaz Azimzadeh, Hadiseh Keivani, Kianoush Khosravi-Darani*

Journal Name: Current Nutrition & Food Science

Abstract:

Background and Objective: Beneficial impacts of Phytochemicals on human health have attracted the interest of research more than ever. In this paper after a glance at the health beneficial impacts of the herbal compound, the obstacles of their usage in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical fields have been reported. Then encapsulation technique has been studied as a solution to overcome the limitations and finally, liposomes have been introduced as the carriers.

Methods: Online papers were considered through various search websites, including PubMed, web of knowledge, Google Scholar, and Scopus from 2003 to 2020 to find reviews, editorials, and articles on the effects of herbal compounds on human health, improving the characteristics of phytocompounds by liposome and introduce heating methods of liposome preparation.

Results: Herbal-derived compounds seem to be a potential tool for the prevention of disorders while they are susceptible to environmental stress. Encapsulation of herbal-derived compounds in liposomes and nanoliposomes is suggested to improve stability and bioavailability.

Conclusion: This article reviewed the beneficial effects of liposomal as encapsulation method in improving sustainability and carrier of herbal-derived compounds for application in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industry.

Keywords: Herbal compounds, Encapsulation, Cancer, liposomes carrier, Pharmaceutical, nutraceutical industry

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DOI: 10.2174/1573401317666210224122418
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Preface

Author(s): Manoj Gupta

Journal Name: Current Nanomaterials

Volume 6 , Issue 1 , 2021

promotion: free to download

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VOLUME: 6
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2021
Published on: 24 February, 2021
Page: [3 - 3]
Pages: 1
DOI: 10.2174/240546150601210224122327



Meet Our Editorial Board Member

Author(s): Nirmalya Ghosh

Journal Name: Current Nanomaterials

Volume 6 , Issue 1 , 2021

promotion: free to download

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VOLUME: 6
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2021
Published on: 24 February, 2021
Page: [1 - 2]
Pages: 2
DOI: 10.2174/240546150601210224122204


Current Nanomaterials

Editor-in-Chief:

Manoj Gupta  
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
National University of Singapore (NUS)
Singapore

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COVID-19: Role of Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, and Machine learning during pandemic

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Author(s): Gurpreet Kour Sodhi, Simarpreet Kaur, Gurjot Singh Gaba*, Lavish Kansal, Ashutosh Sharma, Gaurav Dhiman*

Journal Name: Current Medical Imaging
Formerly: Current Medical Imaging Reviews

Abstract:

The outbreak of COVID-19 has led to a global heath emergency. Emerging from China, it has now been declared as a pandemic. Owing to the fast pace at which it spreads, its control and prevention has now become the greatest challenge. The inner structural analysis of the virus is an important area of research for the invention of the potential drug. The Countries are following different strategies and policies to fight against COVID-19, various schemes have also been employed to cope up with the economic crisis. While the government is struggling to balance between the public health sector and the economic collapse, the researchers and medicine practitioners are inclined towards obtaining treatment and early detection of the deadly disease. Further, the impact of COVID-19 on Dentistry is alarming and posing severe threats to the professionals as well. Now, the technology is helping the countries fight against the disease. ML and AI based applications are substantially aiding the process for detection and diagnosis of novel corona virus. Science of Robotics is another approach followed with an aim to improve patient care.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), Coronavirus, Respiratory Syndrome, Pandemic

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DOI: 10.2174/1573405617666210224115722
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Brain Tumor Detection and Classification by Hybrid CNN-DWA Model Using MR Images.

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Author(s): Isselmou Abd El Kader*, Guizhi Xu, Zhang Shuai, Sani Saminu

Journal Name: Current Medical Imaging
Formerly: Current Medical Imaging Reviews

Abstract:

Objective: Medical image processing is an exciting research area. In this paper, we proposed new brain tumor detection and classification model using MR brain images to help the doctors in early detection and classification of the brain tumor with high performance and best Accuracy.

Materials: we trained and validated our model using five databases, including BRATS2012, BRATS2013, BRATS2014, BRATS2015, and ISLES-SISS 2015.

Methods: The advantage of the hybrid model proposed is its novelty that is used for the first time; our new method is based on a hybrid deep convolution neural network and deep watershed auto-encoder (CNN-DWA) model. The method consists of six phases, first phase is input MR images, second phase is preprocessing using filter and morphology operation, third phase is matrix that represents MR brain images, fourth is applying the hybrid CNN-DWA, fifth is brain tumor classification, and detection, while sixth phase is the performance of the model using five values.

Results and Conclusions: The novelty of our hybrid CNN-DWA model showed the best results and high performance with Accuracy around 98% and loss validation 0, 1. Hybrid model can classify and detect the Tumor clearly using MR images; comparing with other models like CNN, DNN, and DWA, we discover that the proposed model performs better than the above-mentioned models. Depending on the better performance of the proposed hybrid model, this helps in developing computer-aided system for early detection of brain tumors and helps the doctors to diagnose the patients better.

Keywords: Brain Tumor, MRI, Hybrid CNN-DWA, classification, detection, Accuracy, and loss validation

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DOI: 10.2174/1573405617666210224113315
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Accuracy of magnetic resonance spectroscopy in discrimination of neoplastic and non-neoplastic brain lesions

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Author(s): Qurain T Alshammari*, Mohammed Salih, Moawia Gameraddin, Bushra Abdel Malik, Mohamed Yousef, Omer Loaz

Journal Name: Current Medical Imaging
Formerly: Current Medical Imaging Reviews

Abstract:

Background: Differentiation of brain lesions by conventional MRI alone is not enough. The introduction of sophisticated imaging methods, such as MR spectroscopy (MRS), will have considered contribution and accuracy to the differentiation.

Objective: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of MRS in differentiating neoplasm and non-neoplastic brain lesion.

Methodology: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at Khartoum State from the period of 2015 to 2017. Thirty cases with brain lesions were included in the study investigated with MRS (Single-voxel spectroscopy) and conventional MRI. A comparison of MRS findings and histopathologic analysis was performed. The ratios of Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA were analyzed and compared between neoplastic and non-neoplastic brain masses. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 23.

Results: Out of the 30 patients affected with brain lesions, there were 16 females and 14 males with a mean age of 44 +- 18 years. The ratios of Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA were higher in gliomas, astrocytoma, and meningioma than non-neoplastic lesions. Kappa statistical value (K) showed a good agreement between MRS and histopathological analysis (K= 0.60). The diagnostic accuracy of MRS was 100%, with 82.60% sensitivity, 85.71% specificity, 95% PPV, and 60% NPV.

Conclusion: MRS has high diagnostic accuracy in differentiating neoplasm from non-neoplastic brain tumors. The elevation ratios of Choline-to- N-acetyl aspartate and choline-to- creatine can help Neurosurgeons and clinicians differentiate benign from malignant masses.

Keywords: Brain lesions, accuracy, MRS, Cho/Cr, Cho/NAA ratio, PPV, NPV

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DOI: 10.2174/1573405617666210224112808
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