Human Saliva Metabolome for Oral Lichen Planus Biomarker Identification

(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)

Author(s): Xiaoshuang Wang, Liwei Liu, Qiuzheng Du, Zhi Sun, Erli Yue, Peng Xue*, Hongyu Zhao*

Journal Name: Recent Patents on Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery

Abstract:

Background: Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) is one of the most common oral mucosal diseases. However, the current diagnostic method for OLP has limitations, and sometimes it is easy to be misdiagnosed. Salivary metabolomics may provide new ideas for the diagnosis of OLP.

Objective: To identify the biomarkers for the early detection of OLP.

Methods: A non-targeted metabolomic analysis method was established based on UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS (Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry) to analyze the differential metabolites in saliva samples of patients with OLP and healthy subjects. Saliva samples were collected from 120 OLP patients and 125 healthy subjects.

Results: A total of 19 differential metabolites were identified, including 6 amino acid metabolites, 2 carnitines, 2 lipid metabolites and 9 other metabolites. The integrated biomarkers were constructed by 3 metabolites according to Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC). Meanwhile, multiple metabolic pathways were found to be involved in the occurrence and development of OLP.

Conclusion: Metabolomics can be used to characterize the characteristics of metabolic disorders in patients with OLP, which is also helpful to the early diagnosis of OLP and reveal the pathological process of OLP.

Keywords: Oral lichen planus, UHPLC-Q-orbitrap HRMS, metabolomics, precancerous lesion, biomarkers.

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DOI: 10.2174/1574892816666210224160120
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STAT3 Inhibitor Napabucasin Inhibits Tumor Growth and Cooperates with Proteasome Inhibition in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells

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Author(s): Yao Liu, Xiaolin Peng, Hui Li, Wenhui Jiao, Xin Peng, Jingrong Shao, Yanglu Xu, Ran Wang*, Wei Wang*, Dexin Kong*

Journal Name: Recent Patents on Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery

Abstract:

Background: Ovarian cancer is a disease with the highest mortality in gynecologic malignancies. Activation of STAT3 pathway is well known to be associated with tumor progression and metastasis in a number of cancers including ovarian cancer. Therefore, STAT3 may be an ideal target for ovarian cancer treatment.

Objective: The present study aims to determine the antitumor activity of STAT3 inhibitor Napabucasin as a single agent or in combination with proteasome inhibitor MG-132 in ovarian cancer cells.

Methods: MTT was performed to determine the anti-proliferative effect of Napabucasin on ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells. The involved anti-tumor mechanism was explored by flow cytometry, qRT-PCR and western blot. MDC staining and tandem mRFP-GFP-LC3 fluorescence microscopy were used to analyze the autophagy inducing capability of Napabucasin with or without MG-132. The combinational anticancer effect of Napabucasin and MG-132 was evaluated according to Chou and Talalay’s method (1984).

Results: Napabucasin showed obvious tumor-inhibitory effects against SKOV-3 cells. Treatment by Napabucasin arrested cell cycle progression in G2/M phase. Mechanistically, elevated expression of p21 may contribute to the blockade of cell cycle. Moreover, we demonstrated that Napabucasin induced autophagy in SKOV-3 cells by using various assays including MDC staining, autophagic flux examination, and detection of the autophagy markers. In addition, combination of Napabucaisin with MG-132 exhibited significant synergistic anti-proliferative effect, probably by inducing apoptosis through a mitochondria-dependent pathway. The two compounds induced pro-survival autophagies, and co-treated with autophagy inhibiter might further enhance their antitumor effects.

Conclusion: Napabucasin alone or in combination with MG-132 might be promising treatment strategies for ovarian cancer patients.

Keywords: Ovarian cancer, STAT3, Napabucasin, proteasome inhibitor, G2/M phase arrest, autophagy

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DOI: 10.2174/1574892816666210224155403
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Synthesis and applications of nanoparticles: State of the Art and Future Perspective

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Author(s): Smriti Shukla, Mitali Sharma, Sapna Yadav, Avinash Raghupathy, Kartikeya Shukla, Ajit Varma, Arti Mishra*

Journal Name: Nanoscience & Nanotechnology-Asia

Abstract:

Nanoparticles are being extensively studied these days to grab more knowledge on how they can be used in various fields to increase the yields and hence be beneficial for biotic components of the ecosystem. Chemicals being used in agriculture have caused a lot of damage to the soil and water quality along with the crop plants, ultimately affecting human health severely. Better alternatives are thus required to get higher yields with a better quality of crop plants that enhance human health. A variety of nanoparticles exists in nature, while others have been manufactured accidentally or engineered purposefully. These can play many beneficial roles in the crop plants, increasing the yield of crops and quality of the grains. They can be applied at various stages and in different doses. The effect they exhibit would be dependent on many factors. Different nanoparticles have diverse effects on different plants. Some nanoparticles may be beneficial to one species of crop plant and disadvantageous to the other one. Therefore, an elaborative study is required on all the types of nanoparticles exhibiting their advantageous and disadvantageous impacts on different species of crop plants for the dose and stage in which they have been applied. This review explains the different types of nanoparticles categorized based on their manufacture and the different effects they cause in different plant species. More research and knowledge is yet to be obtained before using nanoparticles in crop plants since the way they affect human health is a serious matter of concern.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, crop yield, human health, synthesis, sol-gel, engineered nanoparticle

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DOI: 10.2174/2210681211666210224154613
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Anti-diabetic Potentials of Thiazolidinedione Analogues with Efficient Synthetic Procedures: A Review of Literature

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Author(s): Ajay Kumar*, Salahuddin, Rajnish Kumar, Rakesh Sahu, Shivali Mishra, Chanchal Singh, Devleena Tiglani

Journal Name: Mini-Reviews in Organic Chemistry

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus refers to one of the leading cause of diseases that affect large populations of human and is characterized by a high glucose level in the blood (also known as hyperglycemia). Thiazolidinedione (TZD) is a five-member heterocyclic compound consisting of three carbons, nitrogen and sulfur. It is also known as glitazones, can be used as potent hypoglycemic agents and is also reduce many other cardiovascular risk factors including percutaneous coronary intervention, carotid and coronary atherosclerosis. As it plays a very important role in the field of medicinal chemistry or pharmaceutical sciences, novel medicine developed and many are on underdevelopment, these derivatives have thiazolidinedione as their primary nucleus. This article has discussed the different synthetic procedures of thiazolidinediones that exhibited potential antidiabetic activity by the activation of PPAR-γ, by reducing the blood glucose levels and by different metabolic process incorporation. Thiazolidinediones has an effective profile as the future investigational drug and can be processed in drug discovery because of its efficient anti-diabetic potential.

Keywords: Thiazolidinediones, PPAR-γ, antidiabetic agents, diabetes, insulin, antihyperglycemics.

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DOI: 10.2174/1570193X18666210224153849
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Recent Advances in Chemistry and Biological Activity of 2,6-Diphenyl piperidines

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Author(s): Mahmoud N. M. Yousif*

Journal Name: Mini-Reviews in Organic Chemistry

Abstract:

The review discusses different methods for preparation of 2,6-diphenyl-piperidin-4-one derivatives. 2,6-Diphenyl-piperidin-4-one is prepared from aromatic aldehyde and acetone in ammonium acetate. Reaction of 1-phenylsulfinylpropan-2-one or 1-(4-chlorophenylsulfinyl)propan-2-one, aromatic aldehyde and ammonium acetate gives a series of 2,6-diaryl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyridin-4-one 6a,b. 4-Phenyl-2-amino-1,3-butadienes reacts with N-allyl benzaldimine through Diels-Alder reaction to afford 2,6-diphenyl-4-piperidinone derivative 7. Also, reactions of 2,6-diphenyl-piperdin-4-one are discussed. The reactions of latter compounds can be on nitrogen atom or carbonyl function group or methylene group adjacent to carbonyl group. In addition, different applications of 2,6-diphenyl-piperidin-4-one are summarized.

Keywords: 2, 6-Diphenyl-piperidin-4-one, piperidine, biological activity, conformations, synthesis, applications.

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DOI: 10.2174/1570193X18666210224153249
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Suitable Conditions for Effective Inter Chip Communication based on Surface Wave Phenomenon

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Author(s): Mahaveer Penna*, Shiva Shankar, Keshava Murthy, Jijesh J J

Journal Name: Recent Advances in Electrical & Electronic Engineering
Formerly Recent Patents on Electrical & Electronic Engineering

Abstract:

Background: The communication between two Integrated Circuits (IC) of the Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) currently happening through copper traces which allow electric charge to flow. Several limitations being encountered with the copper traces during high data rate communication because of the resistivity factors, which eventually leads to the damage of traces and the system.

Methods: The solution for this issue comes with the design of surface wave communication-based waveguide/channel between the IC’s. Surface wave communication over a specified communication fabric/channel performs the propagation of electromagnetic waves effectively even at high frequencies compared to the copper traces using conductor-dielectric combination. This paper deals in revealing suitable conditions through profound analytical models for achieving effective surface wave communication between the pins of integrated circuits.

Results: The analysis includes defining the possible wave propagation terms, suitable channel design aspects for PCB application and corresponding analysis for effective communication at frequencies from 50GHz to 500GHz of millimeter range. This study provides the roadmap to explore a deterministic channel/fabric for pin to pin communication between the IC’s as an alternate for the copper traces.

Conclusion: In this process, the proposed channel achieves low dispersion compared to the copper traces at millimeter frequency range.

Keywords: IC, PCB, Waveguide, Communication Fabric, attenuation, copper.

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DOI: 10.2174/2352096514666210224152835
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Management of unusual not scar ectopic pregnancy: a multicentre retrospective case series

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Author(s): Federico Ferrari*, Silvia Ficarelli, Benedetta Cornelli, Filippo Alberto Ferrari, Antonino Farulla, Carlo Alboni, Enrico Fontana, Marianna Roccio, Anna Chiara Boschi, Danilo Buca, Martina Leombroni, Isabel Peterlunger, Maria Cristina Moruzzi, Giuliana Beneduce, Giulia Bolomini, Antonio Simone Laganà, Piero Malorgio, Giuseppe Ricci, Massimo Franchi, Giovanni Scambia, Enrico Sartori, Franco Odicino

Journal Name: Current Women`s Health Reviews

Abstract:

Background: Management of unusual not scar ectopic pregnancies (UNSEPs) is an unexplored clinical field because of their low incidence and lack of guidelines.

Objective: To report the clinical presentation, the first- and second-line treatment and outcomes of UNSEPs.

Methods. We retrospectively collected patients treated for UNSEP (namely cervical, interstitial, ovarian, angular, abdominal, cornual and intramural), their baseline characteristics, risk factors, symptoms, diagnostic pathway and the type of first-line treatment (medical, surgical or combined). We further collected treatment failures and the type of second-line treatment. We assessed treatment outcomes, time to serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) level negativity, length of recovery, follow up and return to a normal menstrual cycle.

Results: From 2009 to 2019, we collected 79 cases. Of them, 27 (34%), 23 (29%), 12 (15%), 8 (10%), 6 (8%) and 3 (4%) were respectively cervical, interstitial, ovarian, angular, abdominal and cornual. Forty women (50.6%) were submitted to medical treatment, mostly methotrexate based; conversely, 36 patients (45.6%) underwent surgery and only 3 women (3.8%) received a combined treatment. Successful of first-line treatment rate, regardless of UNSEP location, was respectively 53% and 89% for medical and surgical treatment. Treatment failures (21 patients) were submitted to second-line treatment, respectively 47.6% and 52.4% to medical and surgical approach. Of interest, cervical pregnancies achieved the lowest rate of first-line medical treatment success (22%) and received more frequently (69%) a subsequent surgical approach with no hysterectomy. Interstitial pregnancies were submitted to surgery mostly for a matter of urgency (71%), otherwise they were treated with medical approach both at first- and second-line treatment. Ovarian pregnancies were treated with ovariectomy in 44% of the cases submitted to surgery. Angular pregnancies underwent surgery more often, while all the abdominal pregnancies underwent endoscopic or open surgery. Cornual pregnancies received cornuostomy in 75% of the cases. Overall, need for blood transfusion was 23.1% among the patients submitted to surgery. The median length of hospitalisation was shorter for women submitted to surgical first-line treatment (5 vs 10 days; p = 0.002). In case of first-line medical treatment and in case of failure, we found respectively an increase of 3 days (CI95% 0.6-5.5; p = 0.01) and of 3.6 days (CI95% 0.89-6.30; p = 0.01) in the length of hospitalisation. Negative β-HCG levels were obtained earlier in the surgical group (median 25 vs 51 days; p = 0.001), as well as the return to normal menstrual cycle (median 31 vs 67 days; p = 0.000). Post-treatment follow-up, regardless of the failure of first-line treatment, was shorter in the surgical group (median 32 versus 68 days; p= 0.003).

Conclusion: Cervical pregnancies were successfully managed with surgical approach without hysterectomy, and hence we suggest avoiding medical treatment. No consensus emerged for other UNSEPs. Ovarian, angular and interstitial pregnancies are burdened by a non-conservative approach on the utero-ovarian structures. Surgical approach led to shorter recovery, earlier β-hCG negativity and shorter follow-up, even though there is an increased risk for blood transfusion.

Keywords: ectopic pregnancy, cornual pregnancy, interstitial pregnancy, cervical pregnancy, ovarian pregnancy, abdominal pregnancy, hepatic pregnancy, angular pregnancy, intramural pregnancy

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DOI: 10.2174/1573404817666210224150839
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Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening

Accelerated Technologies for Biotechnology, Bioassays, Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products Research

Editor-in-Chief:

Gerald H. Lushington
LiS Consulting, Lawrence
KS
USA

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Injection of Autologous Mesenchymal Cells for the Treatment of Arthritis has so far been Found to be Completely Safe

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Author(s): Chadwick Prodromos*, Tobias Rumschlag

Journal Name: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Abstract:

Background: Injection of autologous mesenchymal stem cells [AMSCs] as stromal vascular fraction, culture expanded adipose derived stem cells, minimally manipulated fat graft, bone marrow aspirate or cultured bone marrow MSCs, for osteo- and inflammatory arthritis have shown good clinical efficacy in many studies. Questions have been raised as to their safety despite no evidence known to us that they are unsafe when used this way. We hypothesized that AMSC injections are completely safe for the treatment of arthritis.

Methods: A PubMed literature search was performed to identify adverse events specifically related to the injection of autologous mesenchymal or hematopoietic stem cells into arthritic joints or intravenously.

Results: 2,011 reported injections were found. No stem cell specific adverse events were identified. Specifically no infections, tumorigenesis, or chondrolysis from collagenase were found.

Conclusions: Intra-articular injection of autologous mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of arthritis is completely safe with no stem cell specific adverse events yet documented, and no increased risk compared with other traditional treatments for arthritis.

Keywords: mesenchymal stem cell, stromal vascular fraction, arthritis, osteoarthritis, adverse event, collagenase

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DOI: 10.2174/1574888X16666210224145104
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Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus In Children

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Author(s): Vivian Tsang*, Alexander Leung, Joseph M Lam

Journal Name: Current Pediatric Reviews

Abstract:

Background: The skin is commonly involved in autoimmune diseases such as lupus erythematous. Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) can manifest with or without systemic symptoms. It is advantageous from a patient and healthcare system standpoint for early diagnosis and intervention. Prevention of complications is especially important in the pediatric population.

Objective: To familiarize physicians with the clinical presentation, diagnosis, evaluation, and management of pediatric cutaneous lupus.

Methods: The search term "cutaneous lupus" was entered into a Pubmed search. A narrow scope was applied to the categories of "epidemiology", "clinical diagnosis", "investigations", "comorbidities", and "treatment". Meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, observational studies, and reviews were included. The search was restricted to the English literature and children. A descriptive, narrative synthesis was provided of the retrieved articles.

Results: A variety of innate and adaptive immune responses are being investigated to explain the pathogenesis of CLE. There are a number of variations of cutaneous manifestations varying from localized malar rash as in the case of ACLE lesions and papulosquamous psoriasiform lesions as in the case of SCLE, to the multiple subtypes within chronic CLE. First-line pharmacological treatments include topicals such as typical calcineurin inhibitors and corticosteroids or oral agents such as glucocorticoids, antimalarial drugs, and hydroxychloroquine.

Conclusion: CLE is inclusive of a number of subtypes that have varying dermatological manifestations in adult and pediatric populations. Current treatment modalities based on understood molecular targets will change. Ongoing research on the mechanisms underlying CLE is necessary to derive new interventions for pediatric patients.

Keywords: lupus erythematosus, autoimmune disease, hydroxychloroquine, photoprotection

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DOI: 10.2174/1573396317666210224144416
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