Preface

Author(s): Alberto Marra

Journal Name: Letters in Organic Chemistry

Volume 18 , Issue 1 , 2021

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VOLUME: 18
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2021
Page: [1 - 1]
Pages: 1
DOI: 10.2174/157017861801210224143856


Letters in Organic Chemistry

Editor-in-Chief:

Alberto Marra
University of Montpellier
Montpellier
France

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Investigation of prevalence and complications of female genital circumcision: A systematic and meta-analytic review study

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Author(s): Sara Abdoli, Seyedeh Zahra Masoumi*, Ensiyeh Jenabi

Journal Name: Current Pediatric Reviews

Abstract:

Objective: The present study was conducted to investigate the complications of circumcision and determine its prevalence in the studied areas.

Method: In this study, the electronic databases of Scopus, PubMed, SID, Web of Science, Magiran were selected to search the total population of observational studies published in Persian and English on the prevalence and circumcision complications in girls. The keywords searched for this purpose were as follows: female genital mutilation, Infibulations, Epidemiologic Methods, Clitorectomies, Female Circumcision, Clitorectomy, Clitoridectomy Complications, Prevalence, associated disease, coexistent conditions, and sequels associated with concomitant conditions, and coexistent disease and their Persian equivalent words. Prevalence estimates of all studies were pooled using a random-effects model at a confidence level of 95%. The bias in the published results of the studies and any reporting errors were examined using Begg and Egger’s statistical tests. Out of 3756 studies, 45 articles were included in the study after excluding irrelevant and repetitive articles.

Results: After reviewing the articles in this field, it was determined that female genital mutilation has sexual complications, problems during childbirth, physical and psychological complications. The prevalence of female genital circumcision in world and Iran in the study areas was obtained using the random effect model was estimated to be 61% (95%, CI = 0.49, 0.73) and 61% (95%, CI = 0.52, 0.70), respectively. In other areas, the prevalence was reported to be close to zero. In total among different countries of world in the study area, Of the 207,709 participants surveyed, 110,596 had undergone female genital circumcision (110,596 of 207,709).

Conclusion: The effects of female genital mutilation on girls are high and require government intervention in various countries.

Keywords: Female circumcision, Clitorectomy, Prevalence, Complications, Meta-analysis, Systematic review

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DOI: 10.2174/1573396317666210224143714
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Recent updates on current and upcoming biomarkers for cardiovascular diseases

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Author(s): Ashif Iqubal, Aamir Khan, Adeeba laeeq, Kabil Malhotra, Mohd. Asif Ansari, Syed Ehtaishamul Haque*

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Abstract:

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a complex disease with multifactorial origin where cardiac membrane damage, inflammation, persistent oxidative stress, apoptosis and mitochondrial damage play a significant role. CVD is associated with high mortality rate and poor clinical outcome due to late diagnosis. Therefore, reliable accurate and specific biomarkers help in timely diagnosis and prevention of further damage. Beside creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), cardiac troponin T (cTnT), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), myeloperoxidase (MPO), etc. which are commonly used biomarkers, we need other supportive and accurate biomarkers for targeted diagnosis, as CVD is a complex diseased condition. Further, mechanism and symptoms of different types of CVD such as myocardial infarction, angina pectoris and heart failure are overlapping, hence in the recent time, multi-markers are used. Multi-markers include markers for oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, membrane damage and energy metabolism. Understanding the etiology of disease, various novel markers have been developed and many of them are in pipeline. For bringing these biomarkers into clinical practice, various statistical criteria such as reclassification, discrimination and calibration are needed to validate and hence these novel biomarkers are yet to be used clinically. For pre-clinical studies, these markers play a vital role in establishing CVD and screening molecules for their cardio protective potential. We therefore, in the current manuscript have discussed various established and other important novel biomarkers for cardiovascular disorders, like biomarker for oxidative stress, cardiac inflammation, membrane damage, plaque rupture and thrombosis.

Keywords: Biomarkers, Oxidative stress, inflammation, Troponin, Galactin-3, Pentraxin-3, Antigen carbohydrate-125

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DOI: 10.2174/1381612827666210224143047
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COVID-19: Epidemiology, Pathology, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Impact

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Author(s): Saimon Shahriar, Md. Sohel Rana, Md. Sabbir Hossain, Ariful Karim, Tasneem Nayla Mredula, Nadia Nourin, Md. Sahab Uddin*, Md. Shah Amran*

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Abstract:

The pandemic, well-known as COVID-19, has been brought about by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and it has distinct characteristics from other coronavirus-related epidemics. This pandemic has been ravaging the whole world for more than a year now and no drugs or vaccines have been found to eliminate this virus from the infected people effectively; only physical measures like social distancing, hand washing and face-mask wearing have been taken to reduce its spreading and very recently Veklury (remdesivir) has been permitted by the USFDA to manage the critical patients. This disease can be asymptomatic but when it is symptomatic, it presents with respiratory problems and cold- or flu-like symptoms which can be diagnosed with a chest CT and confirmed with RT-PCR tests. In this review, the taxonomy and structure of SARS-CoV-2 and history, transmission, epidemiology, pathology, clinical features and impacts of the COVID-19 have been discussed. A summary of possible drug targets, attempted physical and chemical measures, as well as vaccine candidates, have also been provided. How this coronavirus is different from other coronaviruses, the obstacles in managing this disease and the possibility of a second wave have also been reviewed. This review represents a wide range of information regarding COVID-19 and intends to be used as a comprehensive overview in this regard.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, coronavirus, drug targets, second wave, mental health

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DOI: 10.2174/1381612827666210224142446
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Complex Treatment and Prosthetic Rehabilitation of an Acquired Maxillofacial Defect with Tumor Invasion: Case Report

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Author(s): Li Jiajing, Ekaterina V. Kochurova, Narasimha M Beeraka, Natalya V. Lapina, Chang Weilong, Dmitrii M. Belousov, Elizaveta V. Mikhaylenko, Vladimir N. Nikolenko, Cristian Muresanu, Siva G. Somasundaram, Cecil E. Kirkland, Marco Avila-Rodríguez, Gjumrakch Aliev*

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Abstract:

Background: A patient was evaluated with respect to the effects and results of a complex treatment plan for a complete dental rehabilitation. Several steps were required. Each step included immunological tests of salivary biomarkers. Clinical and immunological assessments were evaluated on Day 3, Week 2, Month 3, and Month 6 post-surgery. These evaluations guided the decision-making process with regard to preparation of a permanent prosthesis.

Objective: The aim of the study is to evaluate the response of tissues and organs of the maxillofacial region in patients during dental rehabilitation after maxillofacial surgery.

Method: Complex treatment and rehabilitation involving cooperation between the specialists in maxillofacial surgery, prosthetic dentistry, and cancer immunology.

Results: Long-term monitoring and clinical examination showed a direct relationship between the patient’s clinical and dental status and the changes in oral fluid biomarkers.

Conclusion: The data revealed that the oral fluid biomarkers reflected the patient’s adaptation to prosthodontic rehabilitation. Treatment and monitoring of a maxillofacial tumor patient could use biomarkers as a non-invasive indicator.

Keywords: Prosthodontic rehabilitation, Oral and maxillofacial region, Tumor, Saliva, Biomarker, Prosthetic Rehabilitation.

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DOI: 10.2174/1381612827666210224141559
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The role of hypoxia in endometrial cancer

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Author(s): Yarely M. Salinas-Vera, Dolores Gallardo-Rincón, Erika Ruíz-García, Macrina B. Silva-Cázares, Carmen Sol de la Peña-Cruz, César López-Camarillo*

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

Abstract:

Endometrial cancer represents the most frequent neoplasia from the corpus uteri, and comprises the 14th leading cause of death in women worldwide. Risk factors that contribute to the disease include early menarche, late menopause, nulliparity, and menopausal hormone use, as well as hypertension and obesity comorbidities. The clinical effectiveness of chemotherapy is variable, suggesting that novel molecular targeted therapies against specific cellular processes associated with the maintenance of cancer cell survival and therapy resistance urged to ameliorate the rates of success in endometrial cancer treatment. In the course of tumor growth, cancer cells must adapt to decreased oxygen availability in the microenvironment by upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factors, which orchestrate the activation of a transcriptional program leading to cell survival. During this adaptative process, the hypoxic cancer cells may acquire invasive and metastatic properties as well as increased cell proliferation and resistance to chemotherapy, enhanced angiogenesis, vasculogenic mimicry, and maintenance of cancer cell stemness, which contribute to more aggressive cancer phenotypes. Several studies have shown that hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) protein is aberrantly overexpressed in many solid tumors from breast, prostate, ovarian, bladder, colon, brain, and pancreas. Thus, it has been considered an important therapeutic target. Here, we reviewed the current knowledge of the relevant roles of cellular hypoxia mechanisms and HIF-1α functions in diverse processes associated with endometrial cancer progression. In addition, we also summarize the role of microRNAs in the posttranscriptional regulation of protein-encoding genes involved in the hypoxia response in endometrial cancer. Finally, we pointed out the need for urgent targeted therapies to impair the cellular processes activated by hypoxia in the tumor microenvironment.

Keywords: Endometrial cancer, hypoxia, HIF-1α, microRNAs, therapy

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DOI: 10.2174/1389201022666210224130022
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Antimicrobial Resistance: The Potent Enemy Lurking Behind COVID-19

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Author(s): Rohini Kanwar, Amit Kumar, Jyoti Rathee, Surinder K. Mehta*

Journal Name: Coronaviruses
The World's First International Journal Dedicated to Coronaviruses

Abstract:

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as a global pandemic due to its high transmissibility and pathogenicity. It is a beta clade zoonotic coronavirus alike severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Though no effective medication has been developed against the deadly COVID-19 disease, henceforth old antimicrobial drugs have been repurposed to treat the COVID-19 patients. In this report, a brief account of the used medication, and the potential mechanism of antimicrobial drugs against SARS-CoV-2 has been provided. Based on the earlier incidences, the antimicrobials are expected to lose the battle against SARS-CoV-2. The vast lacuna in the research and development of vaccines has led to overuse of the already formulated antimicrobial drugs which in turn has directed towards a distressing problem called “Antimicrobial resistance (AMR)”. A complete assay of AMR has been given AMR including its cause, mechanism, spread, and consequences. The other two interlinked problems namely, environmental deterioration and secondary infections are elaborated. Moreover, to combat the AMR problem, the way forward has been discussed in detail.

Keywords: COVID-19, Antimicrobial resistance, environmental degradation, secondary infections

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DOI: 10.2174/2666796702666210224125409
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Applications of Nickel(II) compounds in Organic Synthesis

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Author(s): Surya K. De*

Journal Name: Current Organic Synthesis

Abstract:

This review article summarizes the applications of nickel(II) compounds in organic synthesis since 2016. In recent years, the field of nickel(II) catalysis is gaining considerable interest due to readily available, low-cost of nickel(II)-compounds and several key properties of nickel. This review article is organized by the reaction type although some reactions can be placed in multiple sections.

Keywords: Nickel(II)-compounds, Lewis acids, Green Chemistry, Organic Synthesis, Environment friendly, Air- Stable Catalysts

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DOI: 10.2174/1570179418666210224124931
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Strategies for the Synthesis of Mono- and Bis-Thionaphthoquinones

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Author(s): Vitor F. Ferreira*, Alcione S. de Carvalho, David R. da Rocha

Journal Name: Current Organic Synthesis

Abstract:

The subclass of compounds that have the nucleus 1,4-naphthoquinone is the most diverse of the class of quinones, which have a large number of substances and several that have useful applications ranging from medicinal chemistry to application in materials with special properties. The introduction of one or two substituents with the sulfur heteroatom in the naphthoquinone nucleus generates products containing alkyl and aryl groups that amplify certain biological properties against bacteria, viruses and fungi. There are several methods of preparing these compounds, mainly from low molecular weight naphthoquinones with two electrophilic sites capable of reacting with sulfides generating diversity and new classes of compounds, including new sulfur heterocycles and sulfur heterocycles fused with naphthoquinones. These compounds have been shown to be bioactive against several biological targets. This review will describe the methods of their synthesis and, when applicable, their biological activities.

Keywords: 1, 4-naphthoquinone, thionaphthoquinone, bis-thionaphthoquinone, sulfur-heterocycles, synthesis, medicinal chemistry

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DOI: 10.2174/1570179418666210224124603
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