Food Additives and Human Health

Food Additives and Human Health

INTRODUCTION This reference is a detailed guide to the world of food additives commonly used in the food processing and manufacturing industry. Edited by experts in the field, invited scholars ...
[view complete introduction]

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30

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Essential Oils

Pp. 104-119 (16)

Regiane Ribeiro-Santos, Mariana Andrade and Ana Sanches-Silva

Abstract

Essential oils are natural compounds obtained from plants with powerful biological activities. Several studies have reported their use as food additives due to their actions as antimicrobial and antioxidant agents. Despite some limitations, such as aroma and toxicity related to high doses, the use of essential oils in foods is promising and makes it possible to reduce the use of synthetic additives in food applications. In this chapter, the most common extraction methods, as well as the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of some essential oils are addressed. The legal aspects and the general health effects of essential oils are also covered.

Keywords:

Antioxidant capacity, Antimicrobial activity, Essential oils, Food additives.

Affiliation:

Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Pernambuco, IFPE Campus Vitória de Santo Antão, PE, Brazil.

Food Additives and Human Health

Food Additives and Human Health

INTRODUCTION This reference is a detailed guide to the world of food additives commonly used in the food processing and manufacturing industry. Edited by experts in the field, invited scholars ...
[view complete introduction]

US $
30

*(Excluding Mailing and Handling)



Antimicrobial Agents

Pp. 82-103 (22)

Ovais Sideeq, Fazlullah Khan and Kamal Niaz

Abstract

Antimicrobial agents have been the target of numerous research studies for a long period of history and they still attract great research interest namely in what regards to the discovery of newer molecules or the search for newer sources of natural antimicrobials. Antimicrobial agents include drugs, supplements, and ointments which particularly act on bacteria, fungi, comprising molds and yeasts, viruses as well as parasites. Phytochemicals, essential oils, antimicrobial peptides, metal oxides like silver and gold, namely those found as nanoparticles, are being used to treat microbial infections. Antimicrobial pesticides, some of which are isolated from the bacteria themselves, are being studied to help eradicate pathogens in the clinic as well as being used by agricultural companies. There are also various food derivatives that are used as antimicrobial agents. In this chapter, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antiparasitic antimicrobial agents, which include natural and synthesized molecules used as food additives, are addressed. An outlook of recent advances in drugs and other procedures of treating microbial infections is also given. This chapter also focuses on antimicrobial essential oils and antimicrobial pesticides with a closer look at the effects of heat and radiation as antimicrobial therapies.

Keywords:

Antimicrobial Peptides, Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antiviral, Food, Physical agents.

Affiliation:

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Bio-Sciences, Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences CUVAS), Bahawalpur-63100 Pakistan.

Food Additives and Human Health

Food Additives and Human Health

INTRODUCTION This reference is a detailed guide to the world of food additives commonly used in the food processing and manufacturing industry. Edited by experts in the field, invited scholars ...
[view complete introduction]

US $
30

*(Excluding Mailing and Handling)



Antioxidant Food Additives

Pp. 61-81 (21)

Ilias Marmouzi, Shahira M. Ezzat, Mourad Kharbach and Abdelhakim Bouyahya

Abstract

Food additives, especially antioxidant preservatives, are key elements in the food industry and production. Food antioxidants can be natural products such as extracts and purified natural metabolites, or synthetic compounds. They act as radical scavengers, chelators, quenchers, or antioxidant regenerators. Generally, food antioxidants target the preservation of food without altering its taste and colour. Synthetic antioxidants are cheap, easy to use and efficient as preservative agents; however, consumers tend to seek natural antioxidants. This chapter focuses on the different functional antioxidants such as polyphenols, tocopherols that can be used as food additives. These compounds are characterized by different chemical structures and different mechanisms of actions.

Keywords:

Food additives, Natural antioxidants, Oxidation, Preservatives, Synthetic antioxidants.

Affiliation:

Biopharmaceutical and Toxicological Analysis Research Team, Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University Mohammed V-Rabat, Morocco.



A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis: The Effectiveness of Probiotics for Viral Gastroenteritis

Author(s): Fereshteh Ansari, Fariba Pashazadeh, Elaheh Nourollahi, Sakineh Hajebrahimi, Zachary Munn, Hadi Pourjafar*

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

Volume 21 , Issue 11 , 2020

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: Probiotics can be used for the treatment of viral gastroenteritis.

Objective: This systematic review is to evaluate the evidence regarding the effect of probiotics on human cases of viral gastroenteritis.

Methods: The objective of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness of probiotics against placebo or standard treatment for viral gastroenteritis. A comprehensive search of Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE via PubMed and Ovid databases, and unpublished studies (till 27 January 2018) was conducted followed by a process of study selection and critical appraisal by two independent reviewers. Randomized controlled trials assessing probiotic administration in human subjects infected with any species of gastroenteritis viruses were considered for inclusion. Only studies with a confirmed viral cause of infection were included. This study was developed using the JBI methodology for systematic reviews, which is in accordance with the PRISMA guideline. Meta-analysis was conducted where feasible. Data were pooled using the inverse variance method with random effects models and expressed as Mean Differences (MDs) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity was assessed by Cochran Q statistic and quantified by the I2 statistic. We included 17 RCTs, containing 3,082 patients.

Results: Probiotics can improve symptoms of viral gastroenteritis, including the duration of diarrhea (mean difference 0.7 days, 95% CI 0.31 to 1.09 days, n = 740, ten trials) and duration of hospitalization (mean difference 0.76 days, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.92 days, n = 329, four trials).

Conclusion: The results of this review show that the administration of probiotics in patients with viral gastroenteritis should be considered.

Keywords: Viral gastroenteritis, probiotics, prebiotics, diarrhea, gastritis, enteric infections, virus shedding.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 21
ISSUE: 11
Year: 2020
Published on: 21 September, 2020
Page: [1042 - 1051]
Pages: 10
DOI: 10.2174/1389201021666200416123931
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Integrated Adaptive Radio Communication Link Design

Integrated Adaptive Radio Communication Link Design

Editor(s): Sunday Ekpo

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Biomarkers in Medicine

Biomarkers in Medicine

Editor(s): Hafize Uzun and Pinar Atukeren

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Food Additives and Human Health

Food Additives and Human Health

INTRODUCTION This reference is a detailed guide to the world of food additives commonly used in the food processing and manufacturing industry. Edited by experts in the field, invited scholars ...
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Anti-Browning Agents

Pp. 37-60 (24)

Faiza Mumtaz, Fazlullah Khan and Kamal Niaz

Abstract

Browning of food is a major concern in the food industry. The endogenous polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) are responsible for causing enzymatic browning of freshcut fruits and vegetables. The use of sulfites has been replaced by anti-browning agents due to the consumer awareness about potential adverse events and increased regulatory scrutiny associated with the use of sulfites. The objective of this study was to shed light on the potential role of different antibrowning agents to extend the shelf life and maintain the quality of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. The antibrowning capacity is measured by calculating the reduced browning reaction of the cut surfaces and, retaining total visual quality. These agents can reduce cut surface browning through their potential mechanisms by acting as acidulants, chelating agents, complexing agents, enzyme inhibitors or reducing agents. Anti-browning agents can be used alone or in combination with either other agents or with other physical methods to control browning reaction.

Keywords:

Anti-browning, Browning, Chelating agents, Food, Polyphenol oxidases.

Affiliation:

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Bio-Sciences, Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (CUVAS), Bahawalpur-63100 Pakistan.

Strain Gradient Plasticity: Micromechanically-motivated Models with Applications

Strain Gradient Plasticity: Micromechanically-motivated Models with Applications

Editor(s): Asghar Zajkani

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Food Additives and Human Health

Food Additives and Human Health

INTRODUCTION This reference is a detailed guide to the world of food additives commonly used in the food processing and manufacturing industry. Edited by experts in the field, invited scholars ...
[view complete introduction]

US $
30

*(Excluding Mailing and Handling)



Human Health Implications of Specific Group of Food Additives

Pp. 18-36 (19)

Maria Concetta Tenuta and Mariarosaria Leporini

Abstract

Additives are added to food in order to stabilize or increase the nutritional quality and quality and/or safety of the food matrix. Moreover, additives have a technological function and could improve the sensory properties of food.

For a long time, synthetic food additives are largely applied in food industries. Since the last year, there has been a decrease in chemical additives which are less welcome by consumers who prefer the use of additives from a natural source. In this chapter, several groups of additives are described such as antimicrobials, antioxidants and antibrowning agents, with colouring and flavouring agents.

Keywords:

Additives, Colorants, Flavouring, Health, Nutrition, Preservatives.

Affiliation:

Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, Edificio Polifunzionale, Arcavacata di Rende (CS) 87036, Italy.

Online Health Forums and Services: Benefits, Risks and Perspectives

Online Health Forums and Services: Benefits, Risks and Perspectives

Author(s): Rita Mano

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The internet provides a major source of exchanging health information through online portals and new media. Internet users can access health sites and online forums to obtain health information. In ...
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Preface  promotion: free to download

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Theories

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Online Health Information Search and Epatients

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Social Media and Social Networks For Health Purposes

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Mobile Health Applications

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Health Systems

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The COVID-19 Pandemic and Digital Divides

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The Case of COVID-19 and Digital Divides

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Discussion

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Conclusions

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