Recent Advances in Electrical & Electronic Engineering

(Formerly Recent Patents on Electrical & Electronic Engineering)

Editor-in-Chief:

Huiyu Zhou

Department of Informatics

University of Leicester

LE1 7RH

UK

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Simultaneous Determination of Amlodipine and Irbesartan in Their Pharmaceutical Formulations by Square-Wave Voltammetry

(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)

Author(s): İsmail Murat Palabıyık*, Aysegul Dogan, İncilay Süslü

Journal Name: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
Accelerated Technologies for Biotechnology, Bioassays, Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products Research

Abstract:

Background: Hypertension is one of the most important health problems in the world and irbesartan and amlodipine are used in combination in various dosages for the treatment of high blood pressure.

Objective: The aim of this study is to develop a fast, easy, sensitive, accurate, and precise square-wave voltammetry method for simultaneous determination of irbesartan and amlodipine besylate from pharmaceutical formulations at a hanging mercury drop electrode.

Methods: In the applied method, since both active substances gave a peak at different potentials, no interference occurred between them. In optimization studies Britton-Robinson buffer of pH 8.0 was chosen, in which the most appropriate peak shape and maximum peak current were observed. At the same time, as a result of instrumental parameter optimization to obtain reproducible results, 6 mV for scan increment, 30 mV for pulse amplitude, and 50 Hz for frequency were found suitable.

Results: As a result of the calibration studies of the optimized method, linear working ranges were determined as 1.00-13.08 µg mL-1 for irbesartan and 5.83-16.51 µg mL-1 for amlodipine besylate. Limit of detection and limit of quantitation values were respectively calculated as 0.63 and 1.00 µg mL-1 for irbesartan and 0.50 and 1.98 µg mL-1 for amlodipine besylate. The results of precision values (RSD) ranged from 0.67% to 2.31% for irbesartan and 0.65% to 1.49% for amlodipine besylate. Accuracy values were calculated as -0.15% to 1.63% for irbesartan and -0.07% to 3.78% for amlodipine besylate. The results obtained from the recovery studies ranged from 101.05% to 102.78% and from 98.88% to 102.20% for amlodipine besylate and irbesartan, respectively.

Conclusion: After the validation studies of the developed method were carried out, it was successfully applied to pharmaceutical formulations containing these active substances.

Keywords: Irbesartan, Amlodipine besylate, Square-wave voltammetry, Validation, Pharmaceutical formulation, electrochemistry

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(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)
DOI: 10.2174/1386207324666210121110819
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Risk of drug resistance and repeated infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli in intensive care unit cancer patients

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Author(s): Samah M. Refay, Eman H. Ahmed, Ahmed R. Abd ELzaher, Ahmed M. Morsy, Manal M. Yasser*, Ayman M. Mahmoud*

Journal Name: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
Accelerated Technologies for Biotechnology, Bioassays, Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products Research

Abstract:

Background: Bacterial infection is a frequent complication in cancer and immunocompromised patients. The emergence of antibiotic resistance is a significant health problem and cancer patients are at risk of repeated infections with drug-resistant bacteria.

Objective: This investigation aimed to identify predictors of repeat infections of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and drug resistance in cancer patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in Upper Egypt.

Methods: Blood, urine, sputum, pus, and mouth and nose swabs were collected form patients at the Pediatric Oncology and Medical Oncology ICUs during the period from February 2017 to May 2018. The samples were assessed by antibiotic susceptibility test and further evaluated by genetic testing for the temoniera (TEM) gene of β-lactamase. Samples positive for K. pneumoniae and E. coli were included and isolates positive for other microorganisms were excluded.

Results: The study included 107 patients with malignant neoplasms and 136 samples. Repeated infection with K. pneumoniae and E. coli occurred in 31% and 22.45% of patients, respectively. Patients stayed for a longer period in the ICU were more likely to have repeated infections (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.10-1.44, p=0.001) after control of other confounding factors. The type of malignant neoplasm whether it was hematologic or solid tumor (OR 7.46, 95% CI 2.56-21.7, p=0.0002) and a longer prior stay in the ICU (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.28, p=0.025) remained the independent predictors for the drug resistance in the last infection. The TEM type of β-lactamase was encoded in 48.68% and 66.67% of K. pneumoniae and E. coli, respectively.

Conclusion: Reinfection with K. pneumoniae and E. coli in patients with cancer can occur as the number of days in the hospital increases. Total prior days spent in the ICU by cancer patients were independently associated with both repeated infections and drug resistance. Samples from patients with hematologic neoplasms were associated with drug resistance.

Keywords: Drug resistance, Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, Cancer, Klebsiella, Repeated infections.

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(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)
DOI: 10.2174/1386207324666210121104724
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Identification of a novel 4-gene diagnostic model for atrial fibrillation risk based on integrated analysis across independent data sets

(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)

Author(s): Pei Zhang, Qiang Miao, Xiao Wang, Yong Zhang*, Yinglong Hou*

Journal Name: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
Accelerated Technologies for Biotechnology, Bioassays, Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products Research

Abstract:

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common persistent arrhythmia and an important factor leading to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Several key genes and diagnostic markers have been discovered with the development of advanced modern molecular biology techniques, but the etiology and pathogenesis of AF remained unknown.

Methods: In this study, three chip-seq data sets and a RNA-seq data set were integrated as a comprehensive network for pathway analysis of the biological functions of related genes in AF, hoping to provide a better understanding on the etiology and pathogenesis of AF.

Results: Differential co-expression analysis identified 360 genes with specific expression in AF, and functional enrichment analysis further revealed that these genes were significantly correlated with focal expression (p <0.01), autophagy (p <0.01), and thyroid cancer. In addition, Af-specific protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were constructed based on AF-specific expression genes. Network topology analysis identified PLEKHA7, YWHAQ, PPP1CB, WDR1, AKT1, IGF1R, CANX, MAPK1, SRPK2 and SRSF10 genes as hub genes of the networks, and they were considered as potential biomarkers of AF because they were found to participate in the development of AF through Oocyte meiosis and focal expression. Finally, a diagnostic model for AF established with support vector machine (SVM), demonstrated excellent predictive performance in internal and external data sets (AUC>0.9) and in different platform data sets (mean AUC>0.75).

Conclusion: Finally, a diagnostic model for AF established, thus showing its potential in the early identification and prediction of AF.

Keywords: Biomarker, Support vector machine, Atrial fibrillation, Bioinformatics

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(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)
DOI: 10.2174/1386207324666210121103304
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Endothelial dysfunction induced by cadmium and mercury and its relationship to hypertension

(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)

Author(s): Airton Cunha Martins, Alessanda Antunes Dos Santos, Ana Carolina B. Almeida Lopes, Anatoly V. Skalny, Michael Aschner, Alexey A. Tinkov, Monica M. B. Paoliello*

Journal Name: Current Hypertension Reviews

Abstract:

Hypertension is an important public health concern that affects millions globally, leading to a large number of morbidities and fatalities. The etiology of hypertension is complex and multifactorial, and it involves environmental factors including heavy metals. Indeed, cadmium and mercury are toxic elements commonly distributed in the environment which contribute to hypertension. We aimed to assess the role of cadmium and mercury-induced endothelial dysfunction in the development of hypertension. A narrative review was carried out through database searches. In this review, we discussed the critical roles of cadmium and mercury in the etiology of hypertension and provide new insights into potential mechanisms of their effect, focusing primarily on endothelial dysfunction. Although, the mechanisms by which cadmium and mercury induce hypertension have yet to be completely elucidated, evidence for both implicates impaired nitric oxide signaling in their hypertensive etiology.

Keywords: Cadmium, mercury, heavy metals, nitric oxide, hypertension

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(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)
DOI: 10.2174/1573402117666210121102405
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Association of Low-BMI with Aortic Stiffness in Young Healthy Individuals

(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)

Author(s): Satish G. Patil*, Sneha Arakeri, Vitthal Khode

Journal Name: Current Hypertension Reviews

Abstract:

Background: Increased arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It is not known whether low-BMI has any detrimental effect on arterial wall early during young age.

Objectives: The present study was aimed to determine if low-BMI can increase arterial stiffness in young healthy individuals.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on young healthy subjects (n=100) with low-BMI <18.5 (n=50) and normal-BMI: 18.5-24.9 (n=50) with age ranging between 15-23 years. BMI, heart rate, blood pressure and arterial stiffness indices such as regional pulse wave velocity (PWV) between brachial-ankle (baPWV), carotid-femoral (cfPWV), heart-ankle (haPWV), heart-brachial (hbPWV) were measured.

Results: A significantly increased pulse pressure (p=0.014), baPWV (1059.2 ± 140.26 cm/s Vs 994.66 ± 129.23 cm/s; p=0.019) and cfPWV (641.03 ± 113.83 cm/s Vs 583.96 ± 120.48 cm/s; p=0.017) was found in individuals with low-BMI than normal-BMI group. There was a significant negative correlation between BMI and central arterial PWV. Further multiple regression analysis showed that BMI was robustly associated with cf-PWV (p=0.004) and baPWV (p=0.016) even after multiple adjustments with potential confounders using several models.

Conclusions: These findings show a significant increased aortic stiffness and pulse pressure in low-BMI subjects compared to those with normal BMI. Low-BMI was inversely and independently associated with central arterial or aortic stiffness. These findings suggest that low-BMI may be a risk factor for aortic stiffness in young healthy individuals.

Keywords: Arterial stiffness, blood pressure, BMI, young, healthy

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(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)
DOI: 10.2174/1573402117666210121100936
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COVID-19, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 and Renin-Angiotensin System Inhibition: Implications for Practice

(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)

Author(s): Vasiliki Katsi, George Pavlidis*, George Charalambous, Dimitrios Tousoulis, Konstantinos Toutouzas

Journal Name: Current Hypertension Reviews

Abstract:

Background: Recent studies suggested that patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who use renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors have an increased risk of respiratory failure and death. The hypothesis was that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARBs) may up-regulate ACE2 expression that is used as receptor for viral entry into cells.

Objective: The purpose of this review is to discuss the existing evidence on the interaction between COVID-19 infection, ACE2 and ACEIs or ARBs and to examine the main implications for clinical practice. In addition, novel therapeutic strategies for blocking ACE2-mediated COVID-19 infection will be displayed.

Methods: We performed a comprehensive review of the literature to identify data from clinical and experimental studies for the association between COVID-19 infection, ACE2 and RAS inhibition.

Results: The current clinical and experimental evidence for ACEIs or ARBs to facilitate severe acute respiratory distress syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is insufficient to suggest discontinuing these drugs. Several observational studies arrive at the conclusion that the continued use of RAS inhibitors is unlike to be harmful in COVID-19-positive patients.

Conclusions: Further randomized trials are needed to answer definitely the question of whether RAS inhibitors are harmful or beneficial to patients with COVID-19.

Keywords: COVID-19, hypertension, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, renin-angiotensin system, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, angiotensin receptor blocker.

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DOI: 10.2174/1573402117666210121100201
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Ovarian Cancer Biomarkers: Headway towards early diagnosis

(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)

Author(s): Zeba Mueed, Pankaj Kumar Rai, Seemab Siddique, Nitesh Kumar Poddar*

Journal Name: Current Chemical Biology

Abstract:

The advancements in cancer treatment have no significant effect on ovarian cancer [OC]. The lethality of the OC remains on the top list of the gynecological cancers. The long term survival rate of the OC patients with the advanced stage is less than 30%. The only effective measure to increase the survivability of the patient is the detection of disease in stage I. The earlier the diagnosis, the more will be the chances of survival of the patient. But due to the absence of symptoms and effective diagnosis, only a few % of OC are detected in stage I. A valid, reliable having a high acceptance test is imperative to detect OC in its early stages. Currently, the most used approach for the detection of OC is the screening of CA-125 and transvaginal ultrasonography together. This approach has an efficacy of only 30-45%. A large number of biomarkers are also being explored for their potential use in early screening of OC but no success has been obtained so far. This review provides an overview of the biomarkers being explored for early-stage diagnosis of OC as well to increase the current long-term survival rates of OC patients.

Keywords: Ovarian cancer, diagnosis, biomarkers, chemoresistance, human epididymis protein 4 [HE4], carbohydrate antigen 125, bikunin, osteopontin, kallikreins.

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DOI: 10.2174/2212796815666210121095445
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Bacteriophages as Therapeutic Agents: Alternatives to Antibiotics

(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)

Author(s): Safia Samir*

Journal Name: Recent Patents on Biotechnology

Abstract:

Bacteriophages are bacterio-specific viruses that constitute a main portion of the environment. Bacteriophages inject their genome into the targeted bacterial cells and some of them can disrupt the metabolism of bacteria and cause bacterial cell disintegration. The application of bacteriophages to kill bacteria is known as bacteriophage therapy. Since bacteriophages target bacteria and are strain-specific, every bacteriophage/bacterial host pair is unique. They are believed to cause no harm to humans. An additional advantage of the strain-specific nature of bacteriophages is that they do not disrupt the beneficial natural flora in the body. Bacteriophage therapy in the West is not a recognized medicine at this time, and no products are registered. Some clinicians are turning to bacteriophage therapy for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant infections. Lack of adverse effects makes bacteriophage therapy ideal for use. Funding research, media attention, and the increased publication of articles helped in a widespread understanding of its therapeutic potential. The first prerequisite for the use of bacteriophage therapy is simply the availability of bacteriophages for treatment, which is often complicated at this stage of bacteriophage production. This includes providing access to all biologically active bacteriophages against the bacterial isolate of the patient and meeting regulatory criteria of purity, traceability, and characterization. A monophage preparation, which is a single bacteriophage, or a phage cocktail, which consists of a number of combined bacteriophages against one or more bacterial species may be used. Accordingly, the antibiotic resistance crisis brought back bacteriophage therapy as a potential complementary or alternative treatment. Bacteriophages are promising cheap antibacterials.

Keywords: bacterial infection, antibiotic therapy, antibiotic resistance, bacteriophage therapy.

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DOI: 10.2174/1872208315666210121094311
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Erdafitinib as a Novel and Advanced Treatment Strategy of Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma

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Author(s): Parveen Bansal, Deepak K. Dwivedi, Deepa Hatwal, Priyanka Sharma, Vikas Gupta, Suresh Goyal, Mukesh Maithani*

Journal Name: Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
(Formerly Current Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Cancer Agents)

Abstract:

Urothelial carcinoma has become the ninth most common malignancy in the world. Since 1980s, diverse studies and treatment methods came out with their possible effects along with certain limitations. Initially, platinum chemotherapy was considered as first line treatment of the disease. Although it was proved to be effective in the beginning yet most number of cases reported the reoccurrence of the disease. Furthermore, aberrant ligand-dependent and constitutive ligandindependent fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signalling has been reported in large number of solid tumours including urothelial carcinoma that became the basis for FGFR inhibition for the treatment of the disease. Erdafitinib is a pan-FGFR inhibitor that was recently approved in the USA for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic FGFR3 or FGFR2 urothelial carcinoma. The drug is also being investigated as a treatment for other cancers including cholangiocarcinoma, liver cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, prostate cancer, lymphoma cancer and oesophageal cancer. This article summarizes the various treatments evolved for bladder cancer till now, brief description of biology of FGFR inhibition, clinical pharmacology and various clinical trials of erdafitinib.

Keywords: Urinary bladder neoplasm, chemotherapy adjuvant, fibroblast growth factor, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, clinical trials, erdafitinib.

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(E-pub Abstract Ahead of Print)
DOI: 10.2174/1871520621666210121093852
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