Sex-Gender Differences in Diabetes Vascular Complications and Treatment

Author(s): Flavia Franconi, Ilaria Campesi, Stefano Occhioni, Giancarlo Tonolo

Journal Name: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets
Formerly Current Drug Targets - Immune, Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders

Volume 12 , Issue 2 , 2012

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Diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases act as two sides of the same coin: diabetes is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease while patients with ischemic cardiovascular diseases often have diabetes or pre-diabetes. As firstly shown by Framingham study, diabetic women have an increased cardiovascular risk about 3.5 fold higher than non diabetic women, against an increase of “only” 2.1 fold found in male subjects. In view of the impact of sexual hormones on glucose homeostasis, the molecular pathways involved in insulin resistance suggest a sex-gender specificity mechanism in the development of diabetic complications leading to the unmet need of sex-gender therapeutic approaches. This has also been seen in other diabetic complications such as renal diseases, which seems to progress at a faster rate in females compared with males and women benefit less from treatment than do men. Of note, none of the trials done so far are primarily designed to assess sex-gender differences in the benefit from a specific intervention strategy, de facto excluding fertile women from experimentation. In order to provide a more evidence based medicine for women and to reach equity between men and women, sex-gender epidemiological reports, preclinical and clinical research are mandatory to evaluate the impact of gender on the outcomes and to improve sex-gender awareness and competency in the health care system. Future studies should consider sex-gender differences in the setting of randomized controlled trials with drugs.

Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases, diabetic complications, diabetes mellitus, risk factors, sex-gender differences, therapy

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Article Details

Year: 2012
Published on: 01 May, 2012
Page: [179 - 196]
Pages: 18
DOI: 10.2174/187153012800493512
Price: $65

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