ISSN (Print): 1573-3963
ISSN (Online): 1875-6336
Volume 17, 4 Issues, 2021
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ISSN (Print): 1573-3963
ISSN (Online): 1875-6336
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"The reviews in Current Pediatric Reviews are synthetic and critically up-to-date. They are useful for both clinicians and researchers."
Free University of Brussels, Belgium
My appreciations on the reviewing process are very positive and I was happy the way my manuscript was handled.
The manuscript was submitted on March 22, 2017, revised on July 10, 2017, and accepted on July 24, 2017.
I appreciated the clear information and the guides for authors, the user-friendly submission of the manuscript, and especially the communication with the managing team (with Samreen Zaka, to reproduce figures).
The comments of the reviewers were precise, friendly and very pertinent.
M`hamed Bentourkia ( Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences 3001, 12th Avenue North, Sherbrooke (Qc), Canada.)
Has contributed: Insights in Developmental Coordination Disorder Marie.
The increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases in children is a well-known phenomenon .
For this reason, Current Pediatric Review has allowed the creation of a supplement entitled "Allergy in pediatric age: an
Obviously, it was not possible to address the whole Pediatric Allergy. The most interesting aspects have been chosen, exanimated
by experts in the sector.
Authors made a complete and clear development of the topic addressed.
The objective is to provide the reader with an useful tool in daily practice, based on the most recent scientific evidence.
Costagliola and coworkers remark how eosinophilia often poses problems in terms of etiologic research and differential
diagnosis. It is classified into mild (500-1500 cells/μl), moderate (1500-5000 cells/μl) and severe for an eosinophil count >
5000 cells /μl. The term “hypereosinophilia” defines a condition characterized by a blood eosinophil count>1500 cells/μl in at
least two consecutive tests made with a minimum of a 4-week interval. The various causes of eosinophilia are analyzed. The
authors propose a diagnostic algorithm for children presenting with either blood eosinophilia or hypereosinophilia .
Musso and coworkers analyze the links between the composition of the microbiome and the presence of atopy’s clinical
manifestations. The composition of the microbiome in fetal and neonatal period plays a key role in the development of the immune
system: vaginal delivery, breastfeeding, childhood spent in rural environments and/or in contact with animals result in a
greater biodiversity of microbiome, with the presence of protective species that reduce activation of Th2 lymphocytes, involved
in allergic reactions. Finally, skin, gut or lung dysbiosis can be a cofactor in the pathogenesis of allergies and the remodulation
of the microbiome becomes an important therapeutic challenge .
Cianferoni highlights the importance of food allergy and particularly of non IgE mediated food allergy. Non-IgE-Mediated
gastrointestinal food allergies are a heterogeneous group of food allergies in which there is an immune reaction against food but
the primary pathogenesis is not a production of IgE and activation of mastcells and basophils. Non-gE mediated food allergies
(e.g.: FPIES, EoE, FPIAP, Non-EoE EGID) are object of intense investigation by Cianferoni .
Licari and coworkers analyze eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases (EGIDs), distal to esophagus, including Eosinophilic
Gastritis (EoG), Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis (EoGE) and Eosinophilic Colitis (EoC). These represent a heterogeneous group of
disorders characterized by eosinophilic inflammation in the absence of known causes for eosinophilia, selectively affecting different
segments of the gastrointestinal tract. EoE is a well-defined disease with established guidelines, EoG, EoGE and EoC
remain a clinical enigma with evidence based on limited anecdotal case reports .
Dominguez and coworkers analyze relationships between atopic dermatitis and food allergy. The authors reiterate how
atopic dermatitis and food allergy are two distinct entities even if food allergy can be often found in patients with atopic dermatitis.
A skin barrier disturbance plays a main role in the development of sensitization and allergy. Therefore, and due to the
early appearance of AD, preventive newborn skin care with emollients and early introduction of food appear to be very important
to favor food tolerance .
Chiera and coworkers analyze the advances in management of food allergy. Food allergy is a potentially life-threatening
condition and the current management includes food avoidance and use of emergency medications. New management, based on
research and clinical trials, is represented by specific allergen immunotherapy (AIT) which consists in the gradual administration
of growing amounts of the offending allergen in order to induce food desensitization with an oral immunotherapy. The
desirable goal is to achieve "post desensitization effectiveness", which is the ability to introduce food without reaction even
after a period of discontinuation of the offending food. Other therapeutic approaches are being studied alongside immunotherapy
such as modified proteins, probiotics, Chinese herbal supplements, biologic therapies and DNA vaccines .
Caffarelli and coworkers analyze AIT for inhalants allergens. AIT for aeroallergens consists of the administration of standardized
allergen extracts to patients with respiratory IgE-mediated diseases to the same allergen in order to achieve immune
tolerance to the allergen and prevent onset of symptoms. AIT is usually delivered by sublingual, subcutaneous route. Both sublingual
immunotherapy (SLIT) and subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) are given at increasing doses in the build-up phase
and then at maintenance dose. The allergen dose is regularly administered throughout the year or pre/co-seasonally, depending
on the causal allergen and the type of allergen extract. AIT with one or multiple allergens currently represents the only causal
treatment able to change the natural history of allergic airway diseases .
Licari and coworkers analyze use of biologics in children with allergic diseases and present the most recent evidence on
biologic therapies for allergic diseases. They analyze biologic use in severe asthma (e.g.: anti IgE, omalizumab; anti IL-5, mepolizumab, reslizumab, benralizumab), chronic spontaneous urticaria (e.g.: omalizumab), atopic dermatitis (e.g.: anti IL-4 and
IL-13, dupilumab) and food allergy (e.g.: anti IgE, omalizumab) .
Finally, I thank all those who contributed to the realization of this supplement.
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) has an incidence of 3-15%, varying among different geographical areas. Infants that suffer
from NEC need surgical interventions in 30-40% of cases and have a mortality rate of 20-30% with a peak in 50% of cases [1-
3]. Diagnosis of NEC is carried out by Bell’s staging criteria, described in the 1970’s, that utilize clinical and radiological characteristics
. These criteria are less specific to differentiate NEC from another pathology with similar clinical and radiological
presentations. For this reason, the estimate of the incidence of NEC is inaccurate because it is difficult to obtain a right diagnosis.
NEC can cause bowel loss and persistent intestinal failure, furthermore, there is no standard of care defining the minimum
length of residual bowel for which comfort care should be recommended . Significant differences were observed in clinical
decision-making between surgeons and neonatologists, where it is necessary to improve data showing long term outcomes in
intestinal failure . Nowadays, there are no new kinds of diagnostic criteria and therapies, so the major challenge in the future
will be to discover test with high accuracy and specificity to carryout diagnosis of NEC and then, an early treatment. In this
thematic issue for Current Pediatric Reviews, we focused on the new perspective on NEC in a comprehensive approach to
physiopathology, diagnosis, classification, surgical timing, new nutritional and therapeutic strategies, long term outcome, follow
up and the role of probiotics in the prevention of NEC.
I am grateful to Professor Buonocore for his strong support to this thematic issue.
This special issue concerns several topics about the possible long-term consequences when a given life, during his fetal and
neonatal periods, is compromised. I remember, when I was resident in neonatal intensive care (that was in the seventies, hence
forty years ago), how fascinated I had been by the following sentence: “Time present and time past are both perhaps present in
time future, and time future contained in time past” –Burnt Norton, Thomas Staerns Eliot. I sincerely couldn’t, at that time,
realize the global meaning of these words
Research in perinatal medicine has been induced by great pioneers such as among many examples: Sir Geoffrey Dawes in
Oxford, Mary Ellen Avery in Boston and afterwards by many other around the world. It allowed to discover many aspects that
will be described in The Introduction.
It is my great pleasure to present to our readers the work about the following aspects from my collaborators and companions:
Concerning the consequences of intra-uterine growth retardation: from the group of Olivier Baud .
Concerning renal and cardiovascular aspects: from the group of Umberto Simeoni .
Concerning the potential of stem cells in fragile premature, pulmonary aspects: from the group of Bernard Thebaud
I wish to dedicate this manuscript to Wivinne Marion a marvellous mother and neonatologist who died unfortunately at 42
It is my great pleasure to be Guest Editor of this special issue of Current Pediatric Reviews, focusing
on the latest Advances in Food Allergy.
Food allergy affects 6-8% of children and its prevalence has been on the increase. As a consequence,
primary care physicians and pediatricians are likely to encounter children with food allergy
frequently in their everyday practice and a practical knowledge of how to assess and manage this condition
We open this issue with a review of food allergy diagnosis and management. There have been a lot
of new advances in how we approach a food allergy diagnosis with significant emphasis on new diagnostic
tools, such as specific IgE to allergen components and the basophil activation test. The advantages
and disadvantages of different diagnostic techniques are fully debated by . Helyeh et al. 
detail new strategies in the active management of food allergies through risk management of accidental allergic reactions and
also potential modification of the natural history of food allergies. The role of the gut microbiota in promoting tolerance in food
allergy is examined at length, by Marrs et al,  who provide an interesting review of current studies on this intriguing topic.
As we know, allergic disease can present with symptoms from various different body systems, including the respiratory and
the skin. The association between food allergy and asthma is well documented, however, the exact interplay between the two
atopic conditions is not fully understood yet. Foong et al.  investigate this link with the aim to offer a better understanding
and recognition of these two conditions. A close relationship also exists between food allergy and atopic dermatitis, with a third
of children with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis suffering from food allergy. Cartledge and Chan  explain the current
understanding of this association and propose an easy-to-follow algorithm for primary care physicians and pediatricians who
look after children with food allergy and atopic dermatitis.
In the pediatric population, the commonest cause of anaphylaxis is food allergy . We therefore conclude this special issue
with a comprehensive review on anaphylaxis, a clinical emergency that all physicians should be prepared for.
Finally, I would like to thank all the authors for their valuable contributions and hope that you will enjoy reading this special
issue, while at the same time finding it educational and useful for your daily practice.
I am very thankful for the opportunity to act as a Guest Editor in this special issue of Current Pediatric Review. We hope to
examine the advancement and opportunities that lie in the care of the acutely traumatized child. As the sole leading cause of
death, the pursuit of knowledge in the care of traumatized children remains as important and as relevant as ever. Whether in the
role of primary care providers or pediatricians, or as specialized emergency physicians, the acquisition of knowledge of the
different facets of care will be of significant interest.
As a profession, we should be proud that we have advanced far beyond treating these patients as “little adults”, and take
pride that many advances in adult trauma care have led to the adoption of practices initiated and refined within pediatrics.
We start this issue with a topic of great importance, traumatic brain injury. Through the understanding of the many different
modalities of treatment options described by Belisle et al.,  we can begin to strive for the very best outcome in these children.
The role of various fluids and medications is also of great importance not only in traumatic brain injury, but in polytrauma.
Discussion on different treatments and their application is presented expertly by Dr. Misir and Mehrotra . Moving
forward, various special circumstances demand discussion as their treatment options, and pitfalls to watch out and they are important
to preserve the best outcomes for our patients. Mehrotra et al. . tackle the two common situations of temperature
disturbances, and thermal injuries.
One of the largest changes in practice has been in our knowledge of the alleviation and treatment of pain in children, especially
with the removal of codeine in the modern era. Poonai et al. . provide an excellent insight into the current care standards
and directions moving forward. Another example of something new in trauma care for children, we are delighted that
Istasy et al.,  were able to provide a 2017 review on point of care ultrasound and it’s various applications in children.
Although trauma is the leading cause of death in children, it needn’t be. As health care advocates, the importance of injury
prevention and advocacy for safety is clear. We thank Forward et al.  for providing us insight into the history and direction
of injury prevention today.
Last but certainly not the least, we thank Loubani et al. and Lynch et al. [7, 8] for providing excellent reviews on the management
of orthopedic and abdominal trauma, respectively. Certainly, these two areas are extremely common, and also add to
the significant morbidity and mortality of traumatic injuries in children.
I would like to send my sincere thanks to all of the authors foe their assistance in these various areas, for their hard work
and dedication. I hope that you will find this collection of topics useful and interesting.
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