ISSN (Print): 1570-193X
ISSN (Online): 1875-6298
Volume 18, 8 Issues, 2021
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ISSN (Print): 1570-193X
ISSN (Online): 1875-6298
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Special Issue Submission
12 Abstract Ahead of Print are available electronically
48 Articles Ahead of Print are available electronically
Carbon is one of the most critical elements for humankind in nature. It is essential in people’s lives as well as for industrial
processes as raw material. Due to its diverse electronic properties, carbon materials have a variety of structures and properties
. New types of carbon materials such as carbon nanofibers, graphene, carbon nanotubes, are continuously discovered and
artificially produced in these years . It can be said that carbon materials almost include the properties of all the materials on
the earth, such as the hardest and softest, insulators, adsorbents, conductors and semiconductors, thermal conductors, and insulators,
etc. . With the evolution of science and technology, carbon utilization seems to contain unlimited possibilities of turning
it into useful materials and development.
Another crucial aspect is that sources of carbons can be easily found everywhere in the World, mainly from forest and animal
streams so-called biomass. These sources seem to be unlimited and renewable. IUPAC defines biomass material produced
by biological growth (plants, microorganisms, animals, etc.). Unlike fossil fuel, biomass takes a relatively short time to develop.
Each year, billion metric tons of bio-wastes are generated all over the World, requiring tremendous efforts to develop biomass
systems in which production, conversion, and utilization of bio-based products are carried out efficiently and under environmentally
sustainable conditions [3-6]. Therefore, it is essential to explore natural and renewable energy sources to take the
place of those classical fossil sources, encouraging us to seek greener and more efficient energy technologies to meet the increasing
energy and eco-friendly materials demands [3-6].
Bio-waste valorizations have attracted significant attention over the past years as a potential alternative to the disposal of a
wide range of residues in landfill sites. The conversion of biomass waste into bio-based materials is interesting for its valorization
and an added-value for biomass waste-generating companies. In particular, biomass-derived activated carbon is obtained
with tailored properties to meet the tremendous need for low-cost, high-performance porous carbons for sustainable technologies
[1-6]; in particular, activated carbon is one of the most common adsorbents [1-5], catalyst and electrode material that is
employed for many environmental, chemical and energy store applications [7, 8].
Activated carbons are commonly used in the form of powder; however, they can also be synthesized in different morphologies,
such as thin films, monoliths, or fibers. Different morphologies and applications, biomass plays a major role due to its
inherent structural and chemical diversity. The literature has shown a variety of materials synthesized from heterogeneous biomass
precursors. They show promising results but are unfortunately hardly reproducible. Additionally, there is a lack of systematic
studies correlating the different applications and performances with the precursor physical-chemical characteristics.
Utilization of biomass to produce value-added products would have, at least, two simultaneous impacts; (i) environmental
pollution control and (ii) wealth creation (through the synthesis of hi-tech materials).
This special issue of Mini-Reviews in Organic Chemistry highlights recent research on the advanced and functional carbon
materials from different biomasses; researchers were invited to submit reviews or their latest research studies on bio-based materials
for advanced applications. Also, it has been open to submissions from other researchers working in this field. The research
papers in this issue are focused on the processing, properties, modification, and application of a wide range of bio-based
Iodine was discovered in 1811 by French chemist Bernard Courtois and it was named by J. L. Gay Lussac in 1813. Because
iodine is the largest, least electronegative and most polarisable of the common halogens, it is capable of forming stable polycoordinate
high-valent (with a value of up to 7, IF7) compounds. The most common polyvalent organic iodine compounds are
I(III) and I(V) species. Hypervalent iodine reagents were discovered a long time ago and (dichloroiodo)benzene was prepared
in 1886 as the first stable polyvalent organic iodine compound by a German chemist, C. Willgerodt . This was rapidly followed
by the preparation of many others, including the most common reagents (diacetoxyiodo)benzene and iodosylbenzene in
1892 , 2-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX) in 1893 , and the first examples of diaryliodonium salts reported by C. Hartmann and
V. Meyer in 1894 . In 1914, Willgerodt also published a comprehensive book in this field . Over the last couple of
decades, hypervalent iodine chemistry has evolved from being a mere curiosity to the most thriving field in organic synthesis
. The key to the incredible advancements achieved in this field is the ability of these reagents to act as oxidants as well as
electrophilic reagents in various organic transformations. Over 100 reviews summarizing various aspects of hypervalent iodine
chemistry have been published since the year of 2000, and hundreds of research works utilizing hypervalent iodine reagents are
published every year. The continuous development of numerous new hypervalent iodine reagents and the discovery of catalytic
applications of organoiodine compounds are the most impressive modern achievements in the field of organoiodine chemistry.
The discovery of highly efficient, enantioselective molecular catalysts based on the unique iodine redox chemistry has supplemented
a new aspect to the field of hypervalent iodine chemistry and opened a major surge of research activity. Some of the
major contributors in this area are Stang, Moriarty, Kita, Prakash, Wirth, Zhdankin, Ishihara, Kitamura, Ochiai, Togni, Muñiz,
Olofsson, Quideau, Waser, etc.
Due to their special electronics and optical properties, organic conjugated small molecules with D-π-A structure have become
the research hot topic, in the recent years. Most of their applications are focused on Organic Nonlinear Optical (NLO)
materials, Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) materials, and Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) materials. These research results
have an important impact on the future human lifestyles. So, the special issue of “Recent advances in the synthesis and application
of conjugated small molecules with D-π-A structure” is published in the journal of “Mini-Reviews in Organic Chemistry”.
The fast development of novel materials based on organic conjugated small molecules mainly includes the following aspects:
1. The design and preparation of novel compounds with strong electron withdrawing abilities (electronic acceptors). In most
of the electronic acceptors, compounds with multi-cyano heterocyclics was a typical representative including the chemical
stability, thermal stability, optics-electronic property and synthesized methods. And all of these advantages were reviewed
in the review article of “Synthesis and Modifications of Electron-withdrawing Groups Based on Multi-cyano Heterocyclics”.
2. The design and preparation of novel compounds with strong electronic transmission abilities (π electronic bridges). In the
review, “Electronic characters and synthesis method of novel conjugated system based on benzodithiophene groups”, a
novel electronic bridge based on benzodithiophene groups was introduced. Moreover, many novel organic photovoltaic devices
with high electro-optical conversion efficiency, organic electro-optics modulators were prepared based on the novel
materials prepared by this electronic bridge.
3. The design and preparation of novel compounds with strong electron donating abilities (electronic donors). In the review,
“The advantages of auxiliary donor and its application in novel organic second nonlinear optical chromophores” we find an
interesting discussion on the change of electron donating abilities with the introduction of auxiliary donor groups. Their potential
electron donating ability pointed out a new research direction for us. Many of novel NLO chromophores designed
by this theory showed us large electro-optic coefficients of about 200 pm/V.
4. The application of these organic conjugated small molecules in organic solar cells. With the emergence of global energy
and environmental problems, the application of solar energy has become the global hotspot. Due to the cost of preparation
and material selectivity, novel organic solar cells based on organic conjugated small molecules attracted the attention of the
world. The review of “Recent development of small-molecule donor materials for application in organic solar cells” introduced
the advantages and developing process of such kind of organic solar cells.
5. The micro and nano processing technology of organic conjugated small molecules. Although organic conjugated small
molecules have good electrical and optical properties, these properties cannot be used without the device processing process.
So, the review of “Recent advance in organic conjugated molecule based 1-D micro-/nanostructures for waveguide
applications” was introduced in this special issue. In this review, some special and interesting micro and nano processing
technologies of organic conjugated small molecules were introduced in detail. Else, the special structure of for waveguide
was also discussed.
6. The difference between organic conjugated small molecules and functional polymer materials. In the review of “Optoelectronic
properties and structural modification of conjugated polymers based on benzodithiophene groups”, the optoelectronic
properties and synthesis of conjugated polymers were introduced. Morover, the difference between organic conjugated
small molecules and functional polymer materials were discussed in detail.
I, the Guest-Editor, would like to express my gratitude to many authors who contributed to this special issue, reporting investigations
in various aspects of " The synthesis and application of conjugated small molecules with D-π-A structure ".
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