Changes in environmental conditions like temperature and light critically influence crop production. To deal with these changes, plants possess various photoreceptors such as Phototropin (PHOT), Phytochrome (PHY), Cryptochrome (CRY), and UVR8 that work synergistically as a sensor and stress sensing receptor to different external cues. PHOTs are capable of regulating several functions like growth and development, chloroplast re-location, thermomorphogenesis, metabolite accumulation, stomatal opening, and phototropism in plants. PHOT plays a pivotal role in overcoming the damage caused by excess light and other environmental stresses (heat, cold, and salinity) and biotic stress. The crosstalk between photoreceptors and phytohormones contrib-utes to plant growth, seed germination, photo-protection, flowering, phototropism, and stomatal opening.
Molecular genetic studies using gene targeting and synthetic biology approaches have revealed the potential role of different photoreceptor genes in the manipulation of various beneficial agronomic traits. Overexpression of PHOT2 in Fragaria ananassa leads to the increase in anthocyanin content in its leaves and fruits. Artificial illumination with blue light alone and in combination with red light influence the growth, yield, and secondary metabolite production in many plants while in algal species it affects growth, chlorophyll content, lipid produc-tion, and increase its bioremediation efficiency. Artificial illumination alters the morphological, developmental, and physiological characteristics of agronomic crops and algal species. This review focuses on PHOT modulat-ed signalosome and artificial illumination-based photo-biotechnological approaches for the development of Climate-Smart Crops.