An ability to achieve useful properties of structural materials is largely dependent on their bulk microstructure. Over the years, the innate ability to achieve noticeable improvements in structural materials has relied upon processing as a viable means and/or alternative, which in turn determines the resulting microstructure and properties or behavior. Sustained research and development efforts in the domains encompassing materials science, materials engineering and manufacturing processes have made possible the arrival of a time period in which specific properties of a material can be obtained by carefully controlling the architecture of its constituents. Nanostructuring of materials to include both metals and their alloy counterparts is a key for obtaining extraordinary properties that made them attractive for the purpose of selection and use in both structural applications and functional applications. In recent years, the production of bulk nanostructured materials [BNMs] by techniques of severe plastic deformation [SPD] has attracted considerable scientific and technological interest since it offers new opportunities for the fabrication of commercial nanostructured metals and alloys that can be chosen for use in a variety of specific applications. Such nanostructured materials must essentially be not only porosity-free and but also contaminant-free, which makes them an ideal choice for studying, observing and documenting their characteristics, spanning microstructure, properties and mechanical behavior. In this paper, we provide a compelling overview of the approaches most widely used for the purpose of achieving grain refinement using the technique of plastic deformation. An outline of the four most commonly used plastic deformation processing techniques is provided. Salient aspects specific to the technique of equal channel angular pressing [ECAP], high-pressure torsion [HPT], accumulative roll bonding [ARB] of bulk nanostructured metals and surface mechanical attrition treatment [SMAT] of nanostructured layers are provided and briefly discussed. A need for the selection of certain metals and alloys for use in specific applications in the domains spanning, medicine and technology is briefly discussed. The emergence and use of computational nanotechnology, which in essence synergizes the rapid developments in computational techniques and material development, are presented and briefly discussed.