Nanoparticles are being extensively studied these days to grab more knowledge on how they can be used in various fields to increase the yields and hence be beneficial for biotic components of the ecosystem. Chemicals being used in agriculture have caused a lot of damage to the soil and water quality along with the crop plants, ultimately affecting human health severely. Better alternatives are thus required to achieve higher yields with a better quality of crop plants that enhance human health. A variety of nanoparticles exist in nature, while others have been manufactured accidentally or engineered purposefully. These can play many beneficial roles in the crop plants, increasing the yield of crops and quality of the grains. They can be applied at various stages and in different doses. The effect they exhibit would be dependent on many factors. Different nanoparticles have diverse effects on different plants. Some nanoparticles may be beneficial to one species of crop plant and disadvantageous to the other one. Therefore, an elaborative study is required on all the types of nanoparticles elucidating their advantageous and disadvantageous impacts on different species of crop plants, and the dose and stage in which they have been applied. This review explains the different types of nanoparticles categorized based on their manufacture and the different effects they cause in different plant species. More research knowledge is yet to be obtained before using nanoparticles in crop plants since the way they affect human health is a serious matter of concern.
Keywords: Nanoparticles, crop yield, human health, synthesis, sol-gel, engineered nanoparticle
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