Background & Aims: This meta-analysis was performed to quantify the effects of probiotics on renal and
glycemic biomarkers among patients with Diabetic Nephropathy (DN).
Methods: Electronic databases were searched through May 10, 2020. All trials that investigated the effect of probiotics on
serum glycemic markers (Fasting Plasma Glucose [FPG], Hemoglobin A1C, Insulin, Homeostatic Model AssessmentInsulin Resistance [HOMA-IR], and Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index [QUICKI]), and renal status markers
(Creatinine [Cr], Blood Urea Nitrogen [BUN], and Glomerular Filtration Rate [GFR]) were included.
Results: Seven trials that included 340 patients were identified for analysis. The results indicated that probiotics
significantly reduced FPG (WMD= -19.08 mg/dl; 95% CI= -32.16, -5.99; P=0.004), HOMA-IR (WMD= -1.88; 95% CI= -
3.63, -0.12; P=0.036), and Cr (WMD= -0.18 mg/dl; 95% CI= -0.26, -0.09; P<0.001) levels in DN patients; however, there
was no statistically significant change in Hemoglobin A1C, Insulin, QUICKI, BUN, and GFR.
Conclusion: This meta-analysis supports the potential use of probiotics in the improvement of some glycemic and renal
biomarkers in patients with DN.