Background: Entamoeba histolytica is a causative agent of amoebiasis, estimated to cause more than 100,000
deaths per year. Metronidazole is used to treatment of E. histolytica infection. However, this drug has several untoward side
effects, the current study was designed to analysis of the bioactive chemical products in extracts of Reseda sphenocleoides
leaves and evaluation of anti-amoebic activity in vitro.
Methods: Bioactive chemical compounds were tests by GC-MS and FT-IR. Entamoeba histolytica was cultured under xenic
conditions in Locke's egg (LE) medium and different concentrations of extracts of R. sphenocleoides were added to
Results: 11 and 18 bioactive phytochemical compounds were showed in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of R.
sphenocleoides leaves respectively by GC-MS analysis. FT-IR analysis of extracts of R. sphenocleoides leaves proved the
presence many functional groups for various phytocompounds. The ethanolic extract of R. sphenocleoides leaves was
showed inhibits the growth of E. histolytica in vitro at concentrations 5 and 10 mg/ml after 96 hrs of incubation. While the
highest concentration 20 mg/ml used in this study inhibited the E. histolytica in all times of incubation. The aqueous extract
showed there was no growth of E. histolytica at the concentrations of 5 and 10 mg/ml after 72 and 48 hrs respectively.
However, the higher concentfrations (15 and 20 mg/ml) of the aqueous extract were on the growth of the E. histolytica
parasite during the period of incubation. It was found that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for ethanolic and
aqueous extracts of R. sphenocleoides leaves was <15 mg/ml, <10 mg/ml respectively.
Conclusion: The results specify that the extracts of R. sphenocleoides has a higher capacity in reducing of E. histolytica
number in vitro. Moreover, these results showed that the extracts of R. sphenocleoides contains various bioactive
compounds and therefore has various medicinal properties that can be used for the treatment of various diseases.