Background: Water pipe smoking has become a vitally important public health issue in the world with
untruthful assumed less harmful effect.
Objective: The aim of this study was to systematically review the association of water pipe tobacco smoking and risk of
coronary artery disease (CAD).
Methods: Up to September 25, 2018, we electronically searched the PubMed, Embase, and ISI Web of Science with no
time restriction. We included observational studies and excluded conference abstracts, editorials, case-reports, case series,
and reviews. With fixed model effect, we conducted Meta-analysis to evaluate the association between Water pipe
smoking and coronary artery disease. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed by I2 square test. Publication bias was
assessed by Egger test. P<0.05 set as significant level.
Results: Among 248 paper records identified through database search, 52 full texts were eligible for full text assessment
whereas 49 papers were excluded. Additionally, three studies were eligible for meta-analysis, which involved 58,960
adults with 1334 in the water pipe smoker group. Risk of CAD was increased in water pipe smokers compared to
individuals who had never smoked water pipe but the result did not reach statistical significance (OR=1.18, 95% CI: 0.98-
1.38, p=0.06). We found that heavy water pipe smoking (40 to 50 sessions of water-pipe smoking/year) was associated
with CAD compared to lower smokers defined as less than 40 to 50 water pipe/year (OR=2.001, 95% CI: 1.13-2.87).
Conclusions: Heavy Water pipe smoking was associated to coronary artery disease on a clinical level. It seems very
crucial to increase public awareness on adverse effects of water pipe smoking and its cessation in clinical setting.