Background: The widespread uses of nanomaterials for healthcare and biomedical applications such as their
anti-cancer activity, anti-oxidant activity and antimicrobial activity, have been avidly studied in recent decades. Owing to
the cytotoxicity and harmful by-product generation associated with chemical reagents, plant and microbial-based approach
have been preferred for the synthesis purposes.
Results: These synthesized nanoparticles possess characteristic properties attributed to their nano-size compared to their
macroscopic counterparts. Further, the functionalization of nanomaterials via chemical, physical and biofunctionalization
techniques improves the intrinsic, tactile, and associated properties of materials and devices. The functionalized nanomaterials have been explored for the improved colloidal stability, development of smart nanocapsules, DNA-nanoparticles conjugates, protein-nanoparticles conjugates and nano-antibiotics.
Conclusion: In this review, the synthesis of biogenic nanoparticles, their properties and applications are explored, and its
surface modification and implications towards improved properties are emphasized.