Background: Levofloxacin has been recommended by WHO for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis and inhalable
delivery of levofloxacin can be advantageous over conventional delivery.
Objective: This study aimed to develop and optimize inhalable levofloxacin loaded chitosan nanoparticles (LCN). The objective
was to achieve the mean particle size of LCN less than 300nm, sustain the drug release up to 24 h and achieve
MMAD of LCN of less than 5μm.
Methods: LCN were prepared by ionic gelation of chitosan with sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) and subsequent lyophilization.
A Plackett Burman screening design, 32 full factorial design, and overlay plot were sequentially employed to optimize
the formulation. The mean particle size, % entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release, and Minimum inhibitory concentration
Results: The Pareto chart from Placket Burman screening design revealed that the concentration of chitosan and concentration
of STPP were found to be significant (p < 0.05). Further analysis by 32 full factorial design revealed that F-ratio for
each model generated was found to be greater than the theoretical value (p < 0.05), confirming the significance of each
Conclusion: The optimized formulation showed a mean particle size of 171.5 nm, sustained the drug release up to 24 h in
simulated lung fluid, and revealed MMAD of 3.18 μm, which can confirm delivery of the drug to deep lung region. However,
further in vivo studies are required to design suitable dosage regimen and establish the fate of nanoparticles for safe and
efficacious delivery of the drug.