Atherosclerosis, a cardiovascular disease, is at the top of the list among the diseases leading to death. Although
the biochemical and pathophysiological cascades involved within the development of atherosclerosis have been identified
clearly, its nature is quite complex to be treated with a single agent targeting a pathway. Therefore, many natural and synthetic compounds have been suggested for the treatment of the disease. Majority of the drugs employed target one of the
single components of the pathological outcomes, resulting in many times less effective and long-term treatments. In most
cases, treatment options prevent further worsening of the symptoms rather than a radical treatment. Consequently, the current review has been prepared to focus on the validated and non-validated targets of atherosclerosis as well as the alternative
treatment options such as hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, acyl-CoA cholesterol acyl
transferase (ACAT) inhibitors, lipoprotein lipase stimulants, bile acid sequestrants, and some antioxidants. Related to the
topic, both synthetic compounds designed employing medicinal chemistry skills and natural molecules becoming more popular in drug development are scrutinized in this mini review.