Editor(s): Leszek R. Jaroszewicz
eISBN: 978-981-14-7022-6, 2020
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This brief monograph provides reports on liquid crystal materials used for specific devices designed for industrial applications. The authors of each chapter present insights on the design and technical aspects of the manufacturing of advanced liquid crystal light modulators reflecting their experience in advanced liquid crystal materials science.
Chapters in the book first introduce readers to the chemistry and basic materials science of liquid crystal light modulators with information important for practical situations such as custom manufacturing and material quality assessment (including the determination of Frank elastic constants). Subsequent chapters cover a selection of interesting projects where liquid crystal light modulators are applied, such as: a highly transparent, laser damage resistant liquid crystal phase modulators for space-borne laser rangefinders; a dynamic optical filter designed for visualization of air pollution; a high contrast, fast operating, outdoor light shutter for the eye protection of welders.
Readers will gain an awareness of the peculiarities of the liquid crystalline matter, along with the complexity of the design and fabrication of active optical elements, as the information provided in this volume presents detailed practical results of the liquid crystal technology projects.
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Author(s): E. E. Escultura
eISBN: 978-1-60805-178-6, 2020
Scientific Natural Philosophy explains the nature and content of scientific natural philosophy, particularly qualitative modeling, and updates scientific methodology by providing details of the mathematics involved. The book presents a total view of our universe, from the fractal superstring to its destiny as black holes back in to dark matter, and to the timeless and boundless ‘Universe’ where our universe is a local super, super galaxy. It stresses the various levels of complementarity between qualitative and quantitative modeling where the former solves and answers questions the latter could not and duality between quantum and macro gravity. It highlights new information from the Grand Unification Theory (GUT) missing in previous philosophical works such as the indestructible generalized nested fractal superstring, brain waves as common medium of the brain and gene for their functions. Moreover, it points to a new technological epoch brought about by the GUT based on utilization of dark matter towards elevating the quality of life. This comprehensive book provides an exciting perspective on this fascinating field to the reader.
Author(s): Claire David and Zhaosheng Feng
eISBN: 978-1-60805-140-3, 2020
Since the first description by John Scott Russel in 1834, the solitary wave phenomenon has attracted considerable interests from scientists. The most interesting discovery since then has been the ability to integrate most of the nonlinear wave equations which govern solitary waves, from the Korteweg-de Vries equation to the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, in the 1960's. From that moment, a huge amount of theoretical works can be found on solitary waves. Due to the fact that many physical phenomena can be described by a soliton model, applications have followed each other, in telecommunications first, where the propagation of solitons in fiber optics helps in increasing transmission capacity, thanks to their inherent stability, which make long-distance transmission possible without the use of repeaters.
The aim of this book is to present a state of the art theoretical study of solitary waves. Prominent actual works on solitary waves are described.
Author(s): Iraj R. Afnan
eISBN: 978-1-60805-250-9, 2020
The ebook introduces undergraduate students to the basic skills required to use non-relativistic quantum mechanics for bound and scattering problems in atomic, molecular and nuclear physics. Initial emphasis is on problems that admit analytic solutions. These results are then used in conjunction with symmetry to develop approximation methods for both bound and scattering problems. The text concentrates on the application of computational problems to introduce the basic concepts of quantum mechanics. These are then used to study more complex problems that can be reduced to one-body problems.
Author(s): Gennadi Gladyshev
eISBN: 978-1-60805-231-8, 2020
Radiation Processes In Crystal Solid Solutions is a monograph explaining processes occurring in two classes of crystal solids (metal alloys and doped alkali halides) under irradiation by various types of radiation (alpha, beta, gamma, X-radiations, ions). While metal alloys may differ in high radiation stability, solid solutions based on alkali halides are very radiation-sensitive materials. Radiation defect production mechanisms, intrinsic and extrinsic radiation defects, a role of complexes an impurity-radiation defect which explain distinction in radiating stability of the specified classes of solid solutions are discussed in this e-book. To describe radiation induced phase transformations, two approaches are highlighted: kinetic and thermodynamic. This e-book also includes research on the effect of small radiation doses in a structurally solid phase state of a solution along with a semi-quantitative estimation of radiation effects with respect to temperature changes. This e-book should be a useful reference for advanced readers interested in the physics of radiation and solid state physics.
Editor(s): Giovanni Modanese and Glen A. Robertson
eISBN: 978-1-60805-399-5, 2020
Recent developments in gravity-superconductivity interactions have been summarized by several researchers. If gravitation has to be eventually reconciled with quantum mechanics, the macroscopic quantum character of superconductors might actually matter. This e-book attempts to answer one key question relating to gravity research: Is it possible to generate gravity-like fields by condensed-matter systems, in conditions accessible in a laboratory? General Relativity and lowest-order Quantum Gravity predict in this case very small emission rates, so these phenomena can only become relevant if some strong quantum effect occurs. This e-book is unique in its genre as it maintains a careful balance between different techniques and approaches in gravity and superconductivity research. It will be of interest for researchers in General Relativity and gravitation theories, in field theory, in experimental gravitation, in low-temperature and high-temperature superconductivity and in more applied fields such as telecommunications and beam propulsion technology.
Author(s): Manuel M. Carreira S. J. and Julio A. Gonzalo
eISBN: 978-1-60805-460-2, 2020
Stephen Hawking, present occupant of the Lucasian Chair at Cambridge University, is today one of the best known theoretical cosmologists in the world. His important contributions, in collaboration with Roger Penrose, to the physics of black holes are well known, but this does not make comparable to those of Albert Einstein, as some times is affirmed in the mainstream media. In this book, Hawking´s work as presented at the Vatican Study Week on Astrophysical Cosmology (1981), his bestseller “A Brief History of Time” (1988), his lecture on “Gödel and the end of physics” (2002), and “The Grand Design”(2010) are briefly examined. In them many philosophical questions are raised but no rigorous answers are provided. In the second half of the book, chapters on the origin of science in the Christian West, the post-Renaissance scientific revolution, the true pioneers of modern physics put contemporary cosmology in a proper perspective. The authors conclude that contemporary observational data are compatible with a finite, open and contingent universe, rather than with “everything coming out of nothing”. This book puts in a proper historical perspective, contrary to Hawking’s, that the universe is intelligible as attested by the monumental fact of modern science, and, therefore, that it is contingent, and therefore created. Very often, contemporary theoretical cosmologists ignore the crucial contributions made in Medieval Europe to the birth of modern physics. This book intends to bridge the gap in accessible language for the non specialist.
Editor(s): G. Latini, R. Cocci Grifoni and S. Tascini
eISBN: 978-1-60805-483-1, 2020
This e-book is a collection of chapters on practical and theoretical aspects of atmospheric flows over flat and complex terrain, with applications to air pollution and wind energy.
It is divided into two main sections: the first section deals with atmospheric dynamics, and the second section explains the planetary boundary-layer parameterization that is a key issue for the definition of initial wind flow fields in meteorological and prognostic estimation of turbulence - “Ensemble Nowcasting” for short term prediction.
The e-book is unique in that it features a combination of theoretical, analytical and numerical techniques, and tools where the techniques presented in the e-book are demonstrated and can be replicated by the reader. These practical tools can be used to easily test selected mathematical formulation or for performing a swift sensitivity analysis. The tools presented in this reference work focus primarily on mixing height evaluation, representative day identification and PBL characterization by elementary measurements evaluated at surface level.
This e-book should be a valuable reference for readers interested in the meteorology of atmospheric wind flows.
Author(s): Arnold Hanslmeier
eISBN: 978-1-60805-473-2, 2020
Astrobiology refers to the study of the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. This encompasses extraterrestrial life and life on Earth. Astrobiology is an interdisciplinary field that is gaining a rapidly growing interest among both the general public and the astronomical research community. This e-book explains the detection and evolution of exoplanets and discusses the question of habitability on such objects. Chapters in this text include cited references enabling the reader to acquire more information on specific aspects of astrobiology. It is also a suitable textbook for introductory taught courses in universities and colleges on the subject.
Editor(s): John C. Crepeau
eISBN: 978-1-60805-477-0, 2020
Most scientists and engineers are familiar with the name Josef Stefan primarily from the Stefan-Boltzmann law, which relates the amount of energy transferred by radiation to the absolute temperature raised to the fourth power. Stefan determined this law from experimental data, and it was later theoretically verified by his former student, Ludwig Boltzmann. However, it is interesting to know that this is the same Stefan who lent his name to the solid-liquid phase change problem, and concepts related to molecular diffusion and convective motion driven by surface evaporation or ablation. Stefan counted among his students Sigmund Freud, who was so inspired by his physics instructor that he incorporated scientific methods into psychoanalysis. This invaluable book details not only Josef Stefan’s original contributions in these areas, but the current state-of-the-art of his pioneering work.
Editor(s): Halyna Khlyap
eISBN: 978-1-60805-145-8, 2020
Dramatic developments in developing semiconductor device technology and nanotechnologies over the last decades has placed increasing demands on the fabrication and design of new electronic devices, It is now necessary to implement nanoscale gate geometries to achieve the highest performance standards in new devices. The need to understand and model the operation of nano-devices is, therefore, fundamental to future development and optimal design.
From Semiclassical Semiconductors to Novel Spintronic Devices explains research related to new spintronic devices. This E-book: reports unique results on fabrication and the quite uncommon performance of Si-based solar cells with novel contacts chemically deposited on traditionally prepared semiconductor parts of the solar cell, details the mechanism behind efficient solar radiation conversion and the thermodynamics involved in theory and practice, discusses photonic condensate and relic radiation - exotic topics for theoretical astrophysics which also present possible power tools for achieving highly efficient energy conversion.
This e-book is a useful review on the latest achievements in spintronic technology, characterization methods and nanoscaled active elements modeling for novel device design and applications The text within this e-book serves as a handy resource for graduate and PhD students as well as for professionals interested in the field of semiconductor device technology and modeling as well as spintronics.
Editor(s): Matthias Ehrhardt
eISBN: 978-1-60805-716-0, 2020
Progress in Computational Physics is an e-book series devoted to recent research trends in computational physics. It contains chapters contributed by outstanding experts of modeling of physical problems. The series focuses on interdisciplinary computational perspectives of current physical challenges, new numerical techniques for the solution of mathematical wave equations and describes certain real-world applications.
With the help of powerful computers and sophisticated methods of numerical mathematics it is possible to simulate many ultramodern devices, e.g. photonic crystals structures, semiconductor nanostructures or fuel cell stacks devices, thus preventing expensive and longstanding design and optimization in the laboratories.
In this book series, research manuscripts are shortened as single chapters and focus on one hot topic per volume.
Engineers, physicists, meteorologists, etc. and applied mathematicians can benefit from the series content. Readers will get a deep and active insight into state-of-the art modeling and simulation techniques of ultra-modern devices and problems.
The third volume - Novel Trends in Lattice Boltzmann Methods - Reactive Flow, Physicochemical Transport and Fluid-Structure Interaction - contains 09 chapters devoted to mathematical analysis of different issues related to the lattice Boltzmann methods, advanced numerical techniques for physico-chemical flows, fluid structure interaction and practical applications of these phenomena to real world problems.
Author(s): Takehisa Fujita and Naohiro Kanda
eISBN: 978-1-60805-754-2, 2020
Quantum physics is based on four fundamental interactions of electromagnetic, weak, gravitational and strong forces. All the interactions are expressed in terms of fermion and boson fields which can describe the quantum states of electrons, nucleons and photons in atoms or nuclei. Correct behaviors of these particles can now be described by the basic field theory terminology, and this textbook explains, for the first time, quantum field theory in a unifying method.
At present, modern quantum theory is at a critical junction between different theories, and this textbook presents a clear description of fundamental quantum fields with a sound theoretical framework. No exotic theoretical concepts such as general relativity nor spontaneous symmetry breaking nor quantum anomaly are adopted in this textbook, and indeed all the observed physical quantities can be well understood within the standard field theory framework without introducing any non-physical particles or fields.
From this textbook, readers will be guided through a concrete future direction of quantum field theory and will learn how the motion of electrons in any kind of material can be understood in terms of fields or state vectors. Readers will also learn about application of basic field theory in quantum chemistry, quantum biology and so on.
Fundamental Problems in Quantum Field Theory is a handy resource for undergraduate and graduate students as well as supervisors involved in advanced courses in quantum physics.