Background: In rural China, many natural water bodies and farmlands have been converted to fish farming
ponds as an economic development strategy. There is still a limited understanding of how the diversity and structure of
microbial communities change in natural and managed fish pond ecosystems.
Objective: We aimed to identify the changes of the diversity and structure of microbial community and driving
mechanism in pond ecosystems.
Methods: The datasets of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and the concentrations of N and P fractions were achieved in
water samplers of pond ecosystems. Bioinformatics analysis was used to analyze the diversity and structure of the
Results: Our results indicated that the diversity and structure of the microbial communities in the natural ponds were
significantly different from ones in managed fish ponds. The nutrients of N and P and water environmental factors were
responsible for 46.3% and 19.5% of the changes in the structure and diversity of the microbial community, respectively.
Conclusion: The N and P fractions and water environmental factors influenced the microbial community structure and
diversity in pond ecosystems. Fish farming indirectly affected the microbial community by altering the contents of N and
P fractions in water bodies of ponds when a natural pond was converted to a managed fish pond.