Background: Neuroinflammation is a typical feature of many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, readily become activated in response to infection or injury. Uncontrolled and overactivated microglia can release pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic factors and are the major culprit in neuroinflammation. Hence, research into novel neuroinflammatory inhibitors is of paramount importance for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide, widely used in studies of brain inflammation, initiates several major cellular activities that critically contribute to the pathogenesis of neuroinflammation.
Objective: This review will highlight the progress on terpenoids, an important and structurally diverse group of natural compounds, as neuroinflammatory inhibitors in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells over the last 20 years.