Background: In vivo bioluminescence imaging has been used extensively for screening assays and for
qualitative determination of localization of cells, in particular in cancer studies.
Objective: In this review we show the potential of this noninvasive molecular imaging modality to investigate
gene activity, dynamic processes, and translational disease processes, all under true in vivo conditions with the
specific focus on brain.
Results: We demonstrate a range of applications of bioluminescence imaging in basic and translational neuroscience.
Here, emphasis is on the contribution of bioluminescence imaging of the brain to the elucidation of cellular
and genetic mechanisms, understanding of dynamic processes, and to the discussion of disease characterization
and therapeutic strategies.