A synergy of a pre-accumulated genes with an autoimmunity advancing to slow abolition of
pancreatic beta-cells causes insulin deficiency and results enrooting insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
(IDDM). As per WHO data worldwide about 150 million people are diabetic and the number may rise to
more than double by the year 2025. Any absolute cure for IDDM is not available yet, and one of the
credible advent in the field include cell-based therapy. At this conjecture, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC)
seems to have a specific and beneficial characteristics due to their in vivo as well as in vitro potential to
mimic a pancreatic endocrine phenotype and immune-regulatory actions. MSC have the capacity to tweak
endogenous tissue and cells of immune system. They have been proven as secure and efficacious
cell-based regenerative therapy, to treat diverse autoimmune, degenerative diseases and tissue injuries. By
consolidating characteristics of MSC biology, MSC-based therapy, engineering and advances in the field,
MSC have a great potential to bring us notably closer to a much-needed and long-time awaited cure of
IDDM. The review discusses MSC-based cellular therapeutic strategies targeting at IDDM. MSC characteristics
of immunomodulation and regeneration potential when used alone or in combination with islets
or in differentiated form of insulin producing cells (IPC) are taken into consideration for the review purpose.
Keywords: Mesenchymal stem cells, insulin producing cells, pancreas, autoimmunity, cell differentiation, diabetes mellitus.
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