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Evaluation of Maternal and Infantile Levels of Vitamin D in Preterm Infants

Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent during pregnancy and in premature infants. This study was done to investigate the maternal and infantile levels of vitamin D in preterm infants.

Methods: Using available sampling during 2018-2020 the maternal and umbilical cord serum levels of vitamin D were measured in 294 premature infants in Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. A researcher-made questionnaire containing neonatal demographic and clinical characteristics was used as data collection tool. Both maternal and placental vitamin D levels were categorized into four classes: severe deficiency (vitamin D<10 ng/ml), moderate deficiency (10.1≤vitamin D≤20 ng/ml), mild deficiency (20.1≤vitamin D≤30 ng/ml) and normal (vitamin D >30.1ng ml).

Results: Vitamin D deficiency was seen in 89% of premature infants (46.6% severe, 30.6% moderate, and 11.9% mild). Serum levels of vitamin D were 18.28±13.94 ng/ml and 14.10±9.70 ng/ml in mothers and infants, respectively. The infants below and above 32 weeks had vitamin D values of: 10.97±6.31 ng/ml and 18.05±11.64 ng/ml, respectively. The difference in vitamin D levels between boys (12.59±8.40 ng/ml) and girls (16.05±11.45 ng/ml) was significant (P=0.009). Moderate and severe vitamin D deficiency were more common at earlier pregnancy ages (P=0.001).

Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is more common and severe in preterm infants and their mothers. Controlling vitamin D level during pregnancy, especially in women at risk of preterm labor and preterm infants may help reduce prematurity problems.

Journal Title: Current Pediatric Reviews

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