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Renal Involvement in Pediatric Patients with COVID-19: An Up-to-date Review

Background: In pediatric patients, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been mostly associated with mild symptoms. However, as in adults, renal involvement has been reported in children and adolescents with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Objective: This review aimed to report data about renal involvement in pediatric COVID-19 patients. The focuses were on the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury in Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome Temporally Associated (PIMS-TS) with SARS-CoV-2 and the possible impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection upon kidney function, as well as data concerning patients with previous kidney diseases, including Nephrotic Syndrome and Chronic Renal Disease. The implications for COVID-19 outcomes in pediatric patients were also discussed.

Methods: This integrative review searched for articles on renal involvement in pediatric COVID-19 patients. The databases evaluated were PubMed and Scopus.

Results: The emergence of PIMS-TS with SARS-CoV-2 has shown that pediatric patients are at risk of severe COVID-19, with multi-organ involvement and dysfunction. In addition to intense inflammation, several systems are affected in this syndrome, collectively creating a combination of factors that results in acute kidney injury. Several studies have proposed that kidney cells, including the podocytes, might be at risk of direct infection by SARS-CoV-2, as high levels of ACE2, the virus receptor, are expressed on the membrane of such cells. Some cases of glomerular diseases triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection and relapses of previous renal diseases have been reported.

Conclusion: Further studies are necessary to establish risk factors for renal involvement in pediatric COVID-19 and to predict disease outcomes.

Journal Title: Current Pediatric Reviews

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