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Imaging Findings for Identifying and Evaluating Complications after Lung Transplantation in Patients with Advanced COVID-19: Two Case Reports

Background: Lung transplantation might be a viable alternative for patients with irreversible lung injury secondary to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we describe two patients with end-stage COVID-19 that received lung transplantations, the clinical-radiologic manifestations of post-operative complications, and the imaging features of allograft rejection.

Case presentation: Case 1, a 66-year-old woman presented severe hypoxia after lung transplantation. Chest imaging revealed diffuse homogeneous infiltration in the donor lung. Dramatic resolution of the imaging abnormalities after intravenous administration of methylprednisolone favored a diagnosis of hyperacute rejection. The second is a 70-year-old man, who was infected with bacterial postoperatively. During the empiric antibiotic therapy, chest CT showed newly developed ground glass opacities with septal thickening, suggesting a diagnosis of acute rejection. High-dose corticosteroids therapy was initiated, and the patient recovered gradually.

Conclusion: This is the first report describing post-operative complications of lung transplantation in patients with advanced COVID-19. We presumed that imaging procedures could be a useful tool in early detecting lung transplant complications and selecting specific interventions for patients with COVID-19.

Journal Title: Current Medical Imaging

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