Protective effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids supplementation against renal parenchymal scarring in children with acute pyelonephritis
Aim: This trial aimed to determine if supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids as an adjunct therapy to antibiotic treatment can have protective effects against renal scar formation after acute pyelonephritis (APN) in pediatric patients.
Background: Current evidence points out that besides antibiotic treatment, early administration of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds may be effective in reducing the occurrence of renal damage following APN in children.
Main: The main endpoint of the trial was the comparison of the development of renal scarring formation after APN in an omega-3 fatty acids-treated group and in a control-treated group.
Methods: This prospective randomized, controlled trial study was conducted from March 2016 to May 2018 on 60 children with a diagnosis APN in a tertiary hospital in Iran. After the diagnosis of APN based on the clinical signs and symptoms, urine analysis, urine culture, and dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan (DMSA scan), the patients were randomly allocated into either the control group (n=30 patients: received standard antibiotic treatment only) or the intervention group (n=30 patients: received standard antibiotic-treatment in combination with oral omega-3 fatty acids based on the children’s weight for three consecutive days). A second DMSA scan was performed for the patients at a minimum of six months after treatment. The development of renal scars was evaluated by comparing the baseline DMSA scan lesions with the follow-up DMSA scan lesions.
Results: Fifty patients, including 26 and 24 individuals in the intervention and control groups, respectively, completed the entire course of the study. Renal parenchymal involvement based on the baseline DMSA scan was similar in the two groups (p-value =0.85, 0.90, and 0.53 regarding the right, left, and both kidney units together, respectively). Although comparison of the follow-up DMSA scan lesions to the baseline DMSA scan lesions considering the right and left kidneys as separate units between two groups did not reach the significant level, when considering both left and right kidney units together, results showed a statistically significant difference between groups in favor of the intervention group (p-value =0.04).
Conclusions: Although preliminary, the results of this study showed that administration of omega-3 fatty acids, a natural supplement with well-known anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, as an adjunct therapy to standard antibiotic treatment might significantly reduce the incidence of the occurrence renal scarring following APN in children. Confirmation of these results requires further studies.
Journal Title: Current Pediatric Reviews