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Trimethoxy Crown Chalcones as Multifunctional Class of Monoamine Oxidase Enzyme Inhibitors


Background: Chalcones with methoxy substituents are considered as a promising framework for the inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes.

Methods: A series of nine trimethoxy substituted chalcones (TMa-TMi) was synthesized and evaluated as a multifunctional class of MAO inhibitors. All the synthesized compounds were investigated for their in vitro MAO inhibition, kinetics, reversibility, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeation, and cytotoxicity and antioxidant potentials.

Results: In the present study, compound (2E)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (TMf) was provided with an MAO-A inhibition constant value equal to 3.47±0.09 μM and with a selectivity of 0.008. Thus, it was comparable to that of moclobemide, a well known potent hMAO-A inhibitor (SI=0.010). Compound (2E)-3-(4-bromophenyl)-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (TMh) showed good MAO-B inhibition, with an inhibition constant of 0.46±0.009 μM. The PAMPA assay demonstrated that all the synthesized derivatives can cross the BBB successfully. The cytotoxicity studies revealed that TMf and TMh have 88.22 and 80.18 % cell viability at 25 µM. Compound TMf appeared as the most promising antioxidant molecule with IC50 values, relative to DPPH and H2O2 radical activities, equal to 6.02±0.17 and 7.25±0.07 μM. To shed light on the molecular interactions of TMf and TMh towards MAO-A and MAO-B, molecular docking simulations and MM/GBSA calculations have been carried out.

Conclusion: The lead molecules TMf and TMh with multi-functional nature can be further employed for the treatment of various neurodegenerative disorders and depressive states.

Journal Title: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening

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