Sex difference in blood pressure, a combinatorial consequence of the differential in RAAS components, sex hormones and time course
The longitudinal increment of blood pressure (BP) with age is attributed to lifestyle, internal and external environments. It is not limited to systemic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), signaling to allow the individuals to better adapt to the developmental and environmental change. This regulation is necessary for all lives, regardless of sex. Basic levels of renin-angiotensin- aldosterone system (RAAS) components in males and females define the fundamental sex difference in BP, which may be set by prenatal programming and profoundly influence BP after birth. The innate sex difference in BP is magnified during puberty growth and further modified by menopause. At the age of 70 or older, blood pressure was similar in men and women. The understanding of the prenatal setup and development of sexual dimorphism in BP may provide preventative therapeutic strategies, including timing and drugs, for individuals with abnormal BP.
Journal Title: Current Hypertension Reviews