Osteogenic Differentiation Factors of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in the Current Understanding
Background: Molecular genetic mechanisms, signaling pathways, conditions, factors, and markers
of the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are being actively studied and are among
the most studied areas in the field of cellular technology. This attention is largely due to the mounting contradictions
in the seemingly classical knowledge and the constant updating of results in the analyzed areas. In this regard,
we focus on the main classical concepts and some new factors and mechanisms that have a noticeable regulatory
effect on the differentiation potential of postnatal MSCs.
Results: This review considers the importance of the sources of MSCs for the realization of their differentiation
potential, molecular genetic factors and signaling pathways of MSC differentiation, the role of inflammatory cytokines
and chemokines in osteogenesis, biomechanical signals, and the effect of conformational changes in the
cellular cytoskeleton on MSC differentiation.
Conclusion: It is concluded that it is necessary to move from studies focused on the effects of local genes to
those taking multiple measurements of the gene-regulatory profile and the biomolecules critical for the implementation
of numerous, incompletely studied osteogenic factors of endogenous and exogenous origin. Among
the cornerstones of future (epi)genetic studies, whether osteomodulatory effects are realized through specific
signaling pathways and/or whether cross-signaling with known genes drives the osteogenic differentiation of
MSCs remains to be determined.
Journal Title: Current Pharmaceutical Design