Page: ii-iv (3)
Author: S. Kannadhasan, R. Nagarajan, Kaushik Pal, Alagar Karthick and K.K. Saravanan
Page: 1-15 (15)
Author: M. Krishna Kumar*, Kanagaraj Venusamy and M.C Madhu
PDF Price: $15
The receiving antenna is critical in an RF energy harvesting system because it collects energy from nearby radiating sources. The amount of harvestable energy is influenced by antenna characteristics such as gain, radiation pattern, and impedance bandwidth; therefore, choosing the correct receiving antenna is crucial. The microstrip patch antenna is a popular choice because of its low profile, low cost, and ease of manufacture. Many publications on microstrip patch antennas have been written over the years for various applications, such as mobile communications, radio frequency identification (RFID) and medical telemetry. We provide a folded shorted patch antenna for indoor mobile communication systems in this research. In recent years, there has been a lot of new work in the field of microstrip antennas, and it is one of the most active sectors in business communications. Mobile communications, wireless interconnects, wireless local area networks (WLANs), and cellular phone technologies are among the most rapidly increasing industrial areas today. A microstrip antenna is a popular option due to its light-weight, compact volume, low production cost, and ability to operate at dual and triple frequencies. Microstrip antennas, on the other hand, suffer from a number of disadvantages. A fundamental disadvantage of microstrip patch antennas is their small bandwidth.
Page: 16-28 (13)
Author: S. Abarna*, M. Krishna Kumar and Kanagaraj Venusamy
PDF Price: $15
This chapter has covered the most popular protocols, including those for Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, WiMAX, and cellular networks. There is a rundown of what is needed to set up a basic wireless network. The literature seeks to describe the most extensively used wireless protocols and technologies. After that, an overview is presented of the advantages of wireless networks over wired systems. In addition, the chapter highlights some of the most serious security vulnerabilities that wireless networks face. There are a variety of approaches that may be employed to reduce these risks and safeguard the network's privacy and security. A thorough examination of the potential applications of wireless networks in education and training is also provided, along with proof that the improvements and affordability of wireless technology have helped the education sector.
Impact of Device Parameters on the Modulation Characteristics of Temperature Dependent Quantum Cascade Lasers
Page: 29-44 (16)
Author: P. Ashok* and M. Ganesh Madhan
PDF Price: $15
This study examines the effect of device parameters on the transient and steady-state dynamics. In addition, the device's analogue modulation properties are thoroughly examined. Under various cold finger temperature circumstances, the parameters terminal voltage (V), spontaneous emission factor (SEF), number of stages (M), and mirror reflectivity (R) are modified to see how they affect device properties. To analyze modulation properties, such as bandwidth, maximum modulation depth and corresponding frequency, the device is operated by the haversine input current. According to the findings, the lasing activity is delayed when the cold finger temperature rises, thereby increasing the threshold current regardless of device parameter modification. When T=45K and 0.65A current are used, a maximum Modulation Depth (MD) of 18% is produced. The greatest bandwidth of 27GHz is obtained when the injected current is 1.05A at T=15K. The minimal frequency required to obtain maximal MD rises as current and cold finger temperatures rise.
An Advanced Study on Temperature Affected Electro-optic Properties of In0.73Al0.07Ga0.20As/InP in Fiber-optic Communications under Bi-modes
Page: 45-59 (15)
Author: Pyare Lal*
PDF Price: $15
This fundamental research work has aimed to investigate an advanced study on temperature-affected electro-optic characteristics of In0.73Al0.07Ga0.20As/. In Pheterointerface nanostructure in fiber-optic communication systems underpolarizing transverse bi-modes. In this advanced computing, under the various effects of temperatures, the various energies values of C-V(Conduction-Valence),quasi-Fermi sublevels with the various values of carriers of charge (in cm-3) have been illustrated curvedly. Next, the temperature-dependent computing performances of NI(Near Infrared) material gains within the photon's wavelength and concentration values of carriers under polarizing transverse bi-modes have been investigated graphically in this chapter. In addition, temperature-influenced performances of ROFs (Relaxation Oscillation Frequencies) in Hz with various current values in Acm-2 have been computed graphically. Further, the graphical performances of peak RIC (Refractive Index Change) with various temperature values for both polarize TE & TM-modes. In the computational investigation through the results, the crest values of NI-material gain amplification have been found corresponding to two peaks at the photon's wavelengths ~ 1331 nm and 1551 nm for various effects of temperatures under TE-mode. Although, under TM-mode, the crest value of NI-material gain amplification has been found,corresponding to a single peak at the wavelength ~ 1331 nm for various effects of temperatures. The NI-emitting light of peak intensity emitted by the proposed nanoscale-heterogeneous junction-based nanostructure of wavelengths ~ 1331 nm and 1551 nm has been largely utilized in the FCs (Fiber-optic Cables) based NItelecommunications and several NI-therapies by TIM (Total Internal-reflection Method) with minimal attenuation loss of appropriate NI-signals (in dB km-1) on account of no dispersions, no scattering and no absorptions in the emerging and advanced nanotechnology, medical nanosciences and nanoscale-biotechnology.
Page: 60-69 (10)
Author: B. Aarthi Rashmi, Harishchander Anandaram* and S. Sachin Kumar
PDF Price: $15
The in-silico study on protein-peptide docking involves initiating the biomolecular interaction to identify compatible peptides with antibacterial properties. The current research elucidates a computational module for the discovery. The proteinpeptide docking of marine peptides against the marine bacteria and the gills of teleost fish in CABS-DOCK resulted in a compatible docked structure with the highest accuracy. Protein-peptide docking resulted in maximum compatibility for “ELLVDLL” derived from marine bacteria than “FIHHIIGGLFSVGKHIHGLIHGH” derived from the tapaila gills of teleost fish concerning receptors of resistant bacterial strains.
Page: 70-79 (10)
Author: P. Balaganesh*, E.K. Hirthick Guhan, D. Ranjith, V. Gopalakrishnan, R. Gnanadesigan, R. Rameswari and M. Vasudevan
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By transforming organic wastes into nutrient-rich bio-manure and minimising other environmental effects, composting enables the long-term management of organic wastes. Traditional methods of monitoring and process management present a number of challenges in terms of efficiently using available resources to produce high-quality compost. As a result, smart composting technologies must be introduced to make it feasible for small-scale units in urban areas as well as large-scale operations in outlying areas. By analyzing recent trends in digital-based design and development, the current study explores the reach of digitalization in bringing user-friendly solutions, such as the internet of things (IoT)-based rapid composter. Using sewage sludge and other organic wastes in a stainless steel concentric bin type adiabatic rapid composter with provisions for thermal control (glass wool), feeding and mixing, leachate recirculation, and an online data monitoring system (Arduino kit) using particular sensors, the composting trials were carried out. More than 25% of the control bin's temperature was preserved by the insulator. Within 28 days of treatment, stable and mature compost was produced as a consequence of the online monitoring system's observations of temperature, moisture content, and pH steering for the best aeration and rotating frequency.
Page: 80-89 (10)
Author: K. Ramanujum*, K.K. Saravanan, P. Harikrishnan and R.J. Kavitha
PDF Price: $15
This paper presents the study of a position sensorless Brushless DC Motor drive. Back emf detection is proposed to avoid the conventional methodology of rotor position sensing. An equivalent mathematical model of a Brushless DC motor is developed to obtain various parameters required for more accurate control of the drive. The analysis of the modelled drive is performed through simulation results at various speed steps suitable for adjustable speed drive. The drive suggested with a PID controller, equivalent mathematical model and Back emf detection provides a quick and efficient steady state performance during speed changes. Hence, due to the advantages of compact size, Quick response and overcoming conventional position sensing-based drawbacks, this drive is very well-suited for adjustable speed applications.
Page: 90-94 (5)
Author: K. Sushita*, N. Janaki, E.N. Ganesh and N. Shanmugasundaram
PDF Price: $15
Some physico-chemical properties of hyperbranched poly([1,2,3]-triazol-[1,3,5]-triazine)s synthesized by thermal azide-alkyne cycloaddition of AB2 and A2B monomers were studied by DSC, TGA, SEC and other methods. Density, thermal stability, shock and friction sensitivity were determined. The combustion heat of monomers and polymers, which was also defined, was used to compute their heat. The thermodynamical compatibility of polymers with various plasticizers was investigated by the micro-interference method in the temperature range from 20°C to 100° C. The phase state diagrams were plotted based on the mutual solubility of polymers with plasticizer’s data. The interdiffusion coefficients were found in a wide range of temperatures and solution compositions of investigated systems. Hyperbranched poly([1,2,3]-triazole-[1,3,5]-triazine)s are the perfect building blocks for the creation of innovative energy materials because of their unique features.
Design of CNT Polymer Composite Based Strain Sensor to Study the Effect of Humidity and Electrical Conductivity
Page: 95-105 (11)
Author: E.N. Ganesh*, K. Sushita, N. Janaki and N. Shanmugasundaram
PDF Price: $15
The high electrical conductivity of carbon nanotubes(CNTs) has motivated their incorporation into polymers for several purposes, including electrical conductivity enhancement and sensing. Some studies have suggested that thin films of CNT/polymer composites canbeused for humidity sensing. This study focuses on the influence of humidity on the electrical conductivity of CNT modifie depoxy composite. The degree of sensitivity to the humidity of the developed composite is compared to other sensing capabilities (strain and temperature). It was found that a change in humidity from 5% relative humidity (RH) to 95% RH can cause an 80% reduction in conductivity. This significant reduction must be considered if a CNT-based strain sensor is to be developed. A gauge factor of 3.7 was obtained for CNT-epoxy strain sensor suggesting ~4% change in conductivity as a result of 1% strain. This suggests that a modest change in humidity can completely compromise the accuracy of CNT-based strain sensors.
Page: 106-122 (17)
Author: S. Swapna* and N. Shanmugasundaram
PDF Price: $15
This chapter describes the Power Factor Correction (PFC) Bridgeless (BL) Boost converter fed BLDC motor drive as a cost-effective solution for low-power applications. A BL configuration of the boost converter is proposed, which offers the elimination of the diode bridge rectifier, thus reducing the conduction losses associated with it. A PFC BL boost converter is designed to operate in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DICM) to provide an inherent PFC at mains by using the ANFIS-PID controller. The performance of the proposed drive is evaluated over a wide range of speed control and varying input supply voltages (universal mains at 90–230 V) with improved power quality at AC mains. The obtained power quality indices are within the acceptable limits of international power quality standards such as the IEC 61000-- -2. The performance of the proposed bridgeless boost converter fed BLDC motor drive is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The measured simulation results of THD are reduced to an optimum value of 2.51 for the 400V DC link. Also, the observed results are compared and used to improve the power factor unity according to the variation of the DC link voltage.
Page: 123-132 (10)
Author: K. Sushita*, N. Janaki, N. Shanmugasundaram and R. Krishnakumar
PDF Price: $15
This article proposes the Wireless Power transfer technique in electric vehicle charging using the Dual Active Bridge (DAB) system. The source end of the primary coil is connected with a constant high-frequency DC-DC converter with capacitive compensation, and the secondary coil is connected with capacitive compensation in moving electric vehicles (EVs). A transformer is used to improve the input power, and a compensating capacitor is used to reduce the amount of current leakage. Here the FOPID controller is regulated using Harris Hawks Optimization (HHO) Algorithm which is based on the SOC balancing technique. The analysis of the proposed topology for three different vehicles with different power classes is described in detail. The proposed system is implemented, and output performance will be analyzed in MATLAB/SIMULINK.
Page: 133-139 (7)
Author: Mirasaheb Moula Jamadar, Prasanta Kumar Samal* and Imran M. Jamadar
PDF Price: $15
Vibrations play a very important role in rotor systems. In the manufacturing of the rotor system, the imbalance caused by the offset impeller and eccentricity produces unwanted vibrations. Various studies were carried out on unbalanced factors of rotor systems like eccentricity, crack, etc. But the effect of impeller offset due to manufacturing fault is not given much attention. In this study, the change in natural frequencies with respect to disc offset distance was calculated using numerical analysis and experimental analysis for the steel Jeffcott rotor system. Finite element analysis of the offset rotor shaft is carried out in the ANSYS workbench. Experimental modal analysis is carried out using the DAQ system. The accuracy of the model and the solution technique has been observed by comparing experimental results with the numerical simulation results from ANSYS. It is observed that when the disc is shifted from the center, it has a significant effect on transverse and torsional vibrational frequencies. As the disc is shifted towards bearing supports, the stiffness of the system increases, which leads to an increase in vibration frequency.
Page: 140-146 (7)
Author: N. Janaki*, K. Sushita, A.L. Wisemin Lins and T.R. Premila
PDF Price: $15
The interfacial sliding motion of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) within a polymeric hosting matrix gives rise to energy dissipation. By tuning the interfacial shear strength (ISS) of the CNT-matrix interface, the dissipation can take place within tunable ranges of strain amplitudes. This is the basis for conceiving new multilayered carbon nanotube nanocomposites in which different layers with tunable ISS can lead to a concurrent optimization of strength and dissipation, often seen as two conflicting targets. Such optimization is tackled by a novel meso-mechanical nonlinear inelastic model proven to effectively predict the damping capacity of CNT nanocomposites. The proposed elastoplastic, rate-independent, constitutive theory is based on the mean-field homogenization method which combines the Eshelby equivalent inclusion method, the Mori-Tanaka homogenization, and the concept of inhomogeneous inclusions with inelastic eigen strains introduced to describe the inelastic stick-slip. Since the ISS parameter plays a key role in the nanocomposite strength and dissipation, the current work seeks to improve the strength and damping properties by suitable interfacial CNT-matrix functionalization. Variations in the ISS parameter can be achieved by a functionalization that affects the chemical bonds between CNTs and the hosting matrix. A set of experimental tests - including DMA analysis, calorimetry and spectroscopy — aims to evaluate the influence of the ISS parameter, together with other constitutive parameters, on the nanocomposite strength and damping capacity.
Page: 147-154 (8)
Author: Charanaraja Naik, Prasanta Kumar Samal*, B. Hulugappa, B. Suresha, Imran M. Jamadar and Pramod Kumar Malik
PDF Price: $15
The composite materials find various applications such as in turbine blades, helicopter blades, airplane wings, medical instruments, sports equipment, etc. They are subjected to a variety of dynamic excitations. The resonance condition is desirable for some applications such as vibration actuators, and musical instruments. And due to resonance, catastrophic failure may occur for most of the applications. Therefore, a study of dynamic behavior plays an important role in the design of materials either to avoid or to enforce resonance conditions.
This work aims at the experimental investigation of vibration characteristics of composite beams. In this work, composite beams were made of glass fiber and epoxy resin with varying filler materials and their percentage. Three filler materials, viz. Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3), Nano-Clay, and Silicon Carbide (SiC) were considered for the study. The National Instruments Data Acquisition system (NI-DAQ) with a triaxial accelerometer was used to acquire the vibration data. The natural frequencies of the beams were determined from the frequency domain data and damping ratios of the beams were determined from time-domain data. Effects of filler material type on natural frequencies and damping ratios were studied. According to the research, the damping ratio values drop in the order of CaCO3, Nano-Clay, and SiC while the natural frequency values decrease in the order of Nano-Clay, CaCO3 and SiC.
This reference is a compilation of work from different technology groups that give an insight into strategies used for technology optimization and technical R&D. Each of the 14 chapters presented in the book are contributed by engineering experts and focus on different aspects of smart technologies. The chapters cover a wide range of technical disciplines with a list of references for further reading. The compilation demonstrates methods that are useful to apprentices and researchers involved in the development of technologies in different fields: · Wireless networking · Signal processing · Control and machine engineering · SOC design · Materials science and nanotechnology · Biomedical engineering · Power electronics The contributions in this book provide interesting examples for product development such as custom nanomaterials, digital electronics, smart devices and antennas. The content also serves as a reference for designing special components used for complex systems like wireless communication systems, automated control systems and organic waste processing systems. The content is structured in a format suitable for both learners and advanced researchers, making this reference essential to engineers at all levels.