Book Volume 1
Page: i-i (1)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir
Page: ii-iii (2)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir
Page: 1-5 (5)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Sidra Zafar
Anthrax is a bacterial disease and caused by the transfer of bacterial spores. B. anthracis is gram-positive, non-motile, and aerobic bacteria. There are 3 types of commonly caused anthrax: inhalational anthrax, cutaneous anthrax, and gastrointestinal anthrax; each with its signs and symptoms. In the old days, anthrax is diagnosed by clinical findings and by the exposure history to bacteria. In the laboratory, the Gram staining procedure, ELISA, screening, and serologic assays are used. Antimicrobial drugs are not given at once before the appearance of symptoms unless the evidence is found that the risk is present. Some antibiotics are also found to be effective against B. anthracis such as chloramphenicol, tetracyclines, rifampin, and other first-generation cephalosporins. Anthrax is not transmitted from one individual to another even in case of inhalational anthrax. However, standard precautions must be taken to avoid any risk.
Page: 6-10 (5)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Sadaf Noor
Inflammation of the lungs due to the attack of Streptococcus pneumonia bacterium is termed as pneumonia. Only one or both lungs may be affected. People of less developed countries are at substantial risk of suffering from pneumonia. Cough, high fever, breathing problems, and chest pain are some common symptoms of pneumonia. Chest X-ray, blood test, bronchoscopy are diagnostic methods to identify pneumonia. Certain antibiotics such as Penicillin, Augmentin, Erythromycin, Amoxicillin, Azithromycin, and Fluoroquinolones are used for the treatment of pneumonia. Vaccines are also available such as the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23; Pneumovax). A healthy lifestyle including quitting smoking, hand washing, proper sleep, a healthy diet, and exercise strengthens the immune system and reduces the chances of pneumonia.
Page: 11-13 (3)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Shaiza Ali
Tooth decay is actually the destruction of the hard tissues of the tooth. This is caused by the acid attack due to the fermentation of carbohydrates due to bacterial attack by the bacterial species which colonize the mouth. Streptococcus mutans is the major cause of tooth decay. It occurs in different percentages in children of different ages. It is characterized by difficulty while eating, chewing, and even smiling. Clinical, radiographic, and technology-based methods are mainly used for the diagnosis of tooth decay.
Page: 14-18 (5)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Faryal Batool
Tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and can adversely affect the lungs and other parts of the body. It can be easily transmitted and can even cause death if not treated on time. In a report by WHO 10.4 million people were infected with TB in 2016. People with a weakened immune system, poverty, malnutrition are more susceptible to this disease. Different skin TST and blood tests IGRAs followed by chest radiography are conducted for diagnosis and confirmation of this disease. Antibiotics such as isoniazid, rifampicin, or rifapentine are prescribed in case of infection. BCG vaccine is effective for infants and not recommended for adults.
Page: 19-27 (9)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Ghalia Batool Alvi
Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease caused by Leptospira interrogans which affects humans as well as animals. It can be transmitted from animals to humans in different ways. Global mortality and morbidity data indicate that of almost 1 million cases nearly 60,000 die each year. The agent responsible for this disease is common in tropical regions and the most suitable time for its growth is summer. People working with animals are more likely to contract this disease. It involves some flu-like symptoms: fever, diarrhea, cough, and severe pain. It can also damage the liver and kidneys and can also be fatal. Several methods have been devised for its diagnosis and mostly used methods are gene-based and serological. The main treatment of this disease is the use of antibiotics or a mix of antibiotics depending upon the status of the disease. Prevention from this disease is important as it can even cause death.
Page: 28-32 (5)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Rabia Hussain
Syphilis is an infectious disease caused by a bacterial strain named as Treponema pallidum and is spread through sexual contacts with the infected person, blood transfusion, and sharing of syringes with the infected person. The symptoms of this disease include an outgrowth on the skin, dizziness, skin rashes, irritation, and even stroke in severe cases. This disease is diagnosed both by using non-Treponema tests and by specific-Treponema tests. Culturing of the sample taken from the rash or outgrowth is also very helpful to diagnose the presence of infectious entities. It is a curable disease and is easily cured by a short term course of antibiotics. Another method to cure this disease is the use of penicillin injection after the regular interval of time. This chapter summarized the causing agent, symptoms, commonly used diagnostic tests and management strategies to cure this disease.
Page: 33-37 (5)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Maleeha Batool
Leprosy is actually a disease that is said to be chronic and it is caused by a mycobacterium Bacillus leprae. It is related to physical or mental disablement and mainly it affects eyes, skin, peripheral nerves, and various organs. It is endemic to various domains of the world. Lesions appear on the body and the peripheral nerves become thick and tough which are the main symptoms of the disease. Thus, it can be diagnosed by performing a smear test or by a biopsy experiment. First-line drugs, second-line drugs, and various vaccines are available for the treatment of leprosy.
Page: 38-41 (4)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Momal Tariq
A burn is an injury to skin or tissues of the body caused by heat, electricity, cold, chemicals, and radiation. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (gram-negative bacteria) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive bacteria) cause burn infections in humans. Burn causes breathing problems and redness of the skin, damage to blood vessels causes' skin to become black or brown with no blisters. Burn can be diagnosed by examination, depth of a wound, or its associated infections. In developed countries “treatment” cannot be difficult as much as in underdeveloped countries. This is because of lack of awareness or poor income in underdeveloped countries they depend on traditional treatment which left scars of a wound.
Page: 42-45 (4)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Hafiza Sobia Khan
Gas gangrene is a life-threatening disease which is caused by anaerobic bacteria. Most commonly the infection is a result of any kind of injury or wound. Bacteria grow in the wounded area when an individual does not take care of his wound. Different tests are available for the diagnosis of gangrene infection including a blood test or imaging tests. Treatment can be possible either through antibiotics or surgery. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy considered a lifesaving therapy as it increases the survival rate. Prevention is better in case of infection rather than cure after infection.
Page: 46-48 (3)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Sadia Ishfaq
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a disease that is associated with other types of disorders. It occurs due to the storage of fluids in the abdomen in an abnormal way as well as in the absence of abscess such as intra-abdominal inflammatory focus. Various types of bacteria are involved in this infection these may be both aerobic and anaerobic as well as gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria e.g. klebsiella, pneumonia, and some species of streptococcus pneumonia. People suffering from heart diseases and liver disorders have more chances of this disease. About 20% of the patients die due to this disease.
Page: 49-51 (3)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Rimshah Khan
Relapsing fever has been a major epidemic disease in Europe and Africa. It is transmitted by tick or louse and has two types, LBRF and TBRF. Patients have repeated episodes of fever and other symptoms. The cause of infection is Borrelia species of bacteria. It is treated by antibiotics and single doses are preferred over multiple doses because multiple doses are difficult to implement.
Page: 52-55 (4)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Rameen Fatima
Rat-bite fever is a zoonotic infection that is caused by these two bacteria Streptobacillus moniliformis and Spirillum minus. These two bacteria cause similar but distinct infections, that are transmitted through rats bite, mucous or other feces. It is a rare disease and practices are uncommon on this infection it can be fatal if not treated on time. It is transmitted through rat’s feces, mucous of rat mouth, nose or may be transmitted through contaminated products with rats. Patients undergo fever, rashes, joint pain due to infection. Moniliform bacteria cause Arthritis. As, there is no vaccine available for Rat-bite fever, practices on development for infection treatment are on the way. Antibiotics and Antiallergens are available to cure rashes and infection. This infection can cause syndromes, so treatment on time and preventive measurement are necessary.
Page: 56-59 (4)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Nadia Wazir
Brucellosis is a bacterial disease that affects humans and cattle. In humans, Brucellosis is characterized by nonspecific influenza and fever-like symptoms. Brucellosis is caused by different strains of Brucella like B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and B. canis. Brucellosis is transferred from sexual contact or breastfeeding. Brucella infection is rare without contact with tissue or blood. Proper treatment of this disease not done timely then it becomes a chronic and life-threatening but very rare case it may cause death. Brucellosis in humans is transmitted through animals. Eating of raw animal products may have a high risk of brucellosis these products are raw meat and unpasteurized milk products. Testing may include are Urine culture, Blood culture, Bone marrow, Testing for antibodies, and Cerebrospinal fluid testing. Avoid consuming raw materials of animals like cheese, ice-cream, unpasteurized milk, and meat.
Page: 60-62 (3)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Hira Jamil
Mycetoma is a chronic disease characterized by the formation of grains seen in the tropical and sub-tropical areas where the rate of rainfall is less. It is caused by both bacteria and fungi called actinomycetoma and eumycetoma. Swelling on skin, Painless nodules formed in this disease which later formed grains. In advanced stages of the disease, it can lead to amputation. For diagnosis of this disease direct microbiological observation, serological test, and imaging techniques used. For treatment antibiotics and anti-fungal with surgery used depending upon the agent. Herbal drugs can also be used.
Page: 63-67 (5)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir, Saif Ur Rehman and Afshan Saleem
A gram-negative bacterium called Yersinia pestis causes plague. Plague is a deadly fatal “disease” and it killed millions of people during its three pandemic outbreaks. Due to the discovery of the causative agent of the plague by Alexandre Yersin, it was named as Yersinia pestis. Two types of plagues, bubonic plague, and pneumonic plague are caused by the bacteria. The bacteria use some rodents and fleas as a transmission vector. Fleas need a specific temperature and humidity for its developmental stages. The victim of the plague is not infectious for normal people. Symptoms of bubonic plague include severe headache, bleeding in mouth, restlessness, limb pain, and irritation. Sometimes, Yersinia makes its way to the liver, lungs, spleen, and other organs of the body. The patient feels burning fever and wishes to take a bath with cold water. A rapid diagnostic test is applied to assess the level of disease. An early diagnosis can lead to more chances to cure the disease. Vaccine for the bubonic plague was designed at the start of the last century but it is not efficient rather it is reactogenic. Antibiotics for bubonic plague are more efficient but fail for pneumonic plague.
Page: 68-73 (6)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Shahpara Rehman
Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) stays as one of the most vituperative human pathogens and has been documented recently in veterinary settings also. The prevalent use of antibiotics both in human and veterinary medication resulted in the appearance of resistant strains of S. aureus. Resistance to methicillin is resolute by mecA gene, encoding affinity less penicillin-binding protein PBP 2. Cohort animals, counting dogs, cats, horses, small foreign animals, wildlife animals, and farm animals may comprise a pool for MRSA transmission to humans and others. The appearance, risk factors for MRSA transmission among colonized or infected animals, and possible treatment for infection control are reviewed in the present paper.
Page: 74-77 (4)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Fahad Zafar
Otitis media is the most occurring disease in Childs regarding bacterial infections especially streptococcus pneumonia. Monitoring of these disease-causing agents is necessary to generate new means of treatment, vaccines, and precautionary measures. This chapter will show different methods of diagnosis either based on symptoms or with the help of other means, also the treatment policy by using antibiotics or other options such as surgery are discussed along with the precautionary measures that are to be taken to prevent the Children from such a serious disease.
Page: 78-81 (4)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Rahat Bano
Yaws disease is an infectious disease which is caused by Treponema pallidum. It is an endemic non-venereal disease. In the tropical regions where humidity is present yaws are spread by skin to skin contact. The main camping was started to eradicate this disease by using injectable penicillin. It mainly affects children who are living in poor areas they resultantly suffered from lesions of the bone, cartilage, and skin. The reinfection risk caused by repetitive contact with those children who have an infection and they seem to be a key factor in predicting the treatment failure.
Page: 82-85 (4)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Jaleel Ahmad
Pharyngitis is a throat infection and the back throat inflammation causes throat infection and it is a common reason to visit physicians. Swallowing may be uncomfortable and painful. Commonly, throat infection symptoms are illness, like the flu or cold. In this review, we have discussed the national perspective, epidemiology, regional perspective, clinical diagnosis, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and causes of inflammation pharynges.
Page: 86-89 (4)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Maria Rizvi
Gonorrhea is the 2nd most sexually transmitted disease and is very contagious. The causative agent of this disease is Neisseria gonorrhoeae. According to WHO (World Health Organization), the ratio of new cases of gonorrhea reported every year is 1.6 million worldwide. Symptoms of gonorrhea in females are dysuria, vaginal discharge, rectal and/or lower abdominal discomfort, abnormal uterine bleeding, and dyspareunia, and in males, symptoms are dysuria, urethral itch and/or discharge and rectal or testicular pain. Gonorrhea screening is facilitated by NAATs (Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests) in the last decade. Prescribed medication for gonorrhea disease is combination therapy together with a single dosage of ceftriaxone 250 mg given deep into the muscles plus oral intake of either 100 milligrams of doxycycline or 1 gm of azithromycin twice a day for one week. This disease can be prevented by avoiding sexual intercourse, the use of condoms, modifications in sexual practices, and reduction in the number of sex partners.
Page: 90-94 (5)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Saba Ghafoor
There are many species of genus Chlamydia which causes human diseases, but this genus causing diseases in humans like as Chlamydia trachomatis and other species are C. pneumoniae that is a human pathogen, C. psittaci causes psittacosis in avian but causes infection in humans as zoonosis case, the transmission is rare inperson to person transfer. In women, this leads to severe genital infections like pelvic inflammatory disease, tubal infertility, infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. The high risk of this infection is usually at a young age. Symptoms are; the burning sensation while urinating or abnormal vaginal discharge, lower abdominal pain, nausea, lower back pain, pain during sex, fever, and pain while passing urine,etc. Different types of tests are used to diagnose the infection. Prevention for reduces infection, the use of a condom, number of sex partners will be limited, going to the laboratory regularly for screening. Medicines that are taking against infection are quinolone and tetracycline, erythromycin, clarithromycin, ampicillin, etc.
Page: 95-97 (3)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Ayesha Altaf
Typhoid fever which is the systemic disease is caused by the Salmonella enterica or S. typhi. It has been a disease prevailing throughout the world most common in developing countries, with common symptoms like high fever, constipation, diarrhea, fatigue, and dry cough strategies for its diagnosis have been developed which includes Widal and typhidot, the typhidot technique has advantage on the widal test based on easiness and sensitivity, the different type of antibiotics has been produced for the treatment, but as the bacterial species are becoming resistance there is need for the development of other technique for the treatment which involves the development of vaccines for the prevention of typhoid fever.
Page: 98-102 (5)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Adeela Awan
Q fever is a worldwide disease caused by a bacterium Coxiella burnetti. The C. burnetii is found in goats, sheep, and cows. A higher risk of Q fever is observed in farmers and veterinarians. Acute and chronic diseases are two forms of Q fever. The symptoms of an acute form of Q fever are illness, headache, myalgia, chills, fatigue, sweats, pneumonia, hepatitis, while endocarditis is the most lethal type of chronic form of Q fever. Nucleic acid testing and serological methods are the methods used to diagnose Q fever. In the case of acute disease, an antibiotic Doxycycline (100 mg) is recommended twice a day for its treatment while for endocarditis a combination of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine or a combination of doxycycline plus a fluoroquinolone (FQ) may be prescribed.
Page: 103-107 (5)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Munaza Gilani
Buruli ulcer also called Brainsdale ulcer is the chronic, debilitating subcutaneous destructive infection of the skin, soft tissue, and adipose tissue. Mycobacterium ulcerans is the causative agent of BU. The infection of BU is prevalent in many areas of the world. However, wetlands and tropic to sub-tropic areas are more prone. The disease can be diagnosed by expert physicians as it can be confused with the other skin infection.IS2404 PCR is mostly used for the diagnosis of BU. Antibiotics and surgery are frequently used for the treatment. Heat treatment has also been found effective for BU. The condition could lead to disabilities if not treated on time such as amputation of the vital organ i.e. eye or the limbs. The affected person may face the problem of social stigma and economic challenges as a consequence of these disabilities. No vaccines are available yet for BU. However, short-lived protection is obtained using the BCG vaccine. The disease is not fatal, however.
Page: 108-111 (4)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Ramsha Shahzad
Whooping cough is a respiratory tract infection mainly occurs in children and infants. Bordetella pertussis is bacteria that is responsible for the cough. It is a gram-negative bacteria that belong to the Cocco-bacillus group. Whooping cough is also known as Pertussis. Parents and siblings play a major role in its transmission. It is transferred from person to person. Illness, sneezing, and cough are the main symptoms. By observing the victim it can diagnose easily, by a blood test or by physical examination. However, the treatment of cough is now present in this era. Vaccination is present for treating pertussis. These vaccines are effective, but not enough efficient in their performance. Before the advent of vaccines, pertussis is an epidemic disease, but nowadays it is working against cough for treatment to some extent. More advanced techniques are trying to discover for treating and curing pertussis.
Page: 112-117 (6)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Iqra Shahzadi
Tetanus is also known as lockjaw, Clostridium tetani are its infectious agent. A toxin is produced by that bacteria affects the nervous system and brain, which leads to muscle stiffness. Neurotoxin affects the nerves which control the movement of muscles when the spores of Clostridium tetani entered into the wound. When tetanospasmin enters into the bloodstream, it spreads into the body immediately, appearing tetanus symptoms. The person who is suffering from stiffness and muscle swamp should go for the medical checkup instantaneously. After 7 to 10 days of starting infection, the symptoms of tetanus usually appear. Doctors prescribe metronidazole or penicillin for tetanus treatment. These antibiotics stop the bacterium from producing endotoxin and multiplying that causes stiffness of muscles and muscle spasms. Tetracycline is given to allergic patients instead of penicillin and metronidazole.
Page: 118-122 (5)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Asma Jan Muhammad
Diphtheria is an acute disease caused by a specific bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. In 1883, Klebs first discovered this bacterium in diphtheritic membranes. Diphtheria can spread from one person to another person by direct contact or it may be spread by air. Different symptoms occur during infection and symptoms appear after 7 days of infection. Symptoms of the disease are changed from mild to severe. When the diphtheria disease occurs then a thick covering is formed in the throat. This covering causes difficulty during breathing and it can block the airway. PCR, ICS, and Elek test are used for the diagnosis of the toxin. Mostly children and adult lives are threatening by diphtheria. Vaccines are available for diphtheria disease. 5% to 10% of deaths occur in the affected person. Antibiotics and antitoxin are also available for the treatment of the disease.
Page: 123-128 (6)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Azra Yasmeen
Cholera is a disease caused by a bacterial strain Vibrio cholerae in the small intestine which is a waterborne disease characterized by diarrhea cause loss of water from the body. Vibrio cholerae is the major etiology agent of the cholera disease. There are two O1 and O139 strains of bacteria that produce a toxin which can cause cholera disease, blood infection, and also cause the economic loss of the world. The major causes of cholera are contaminated food and unhygienic water. The bacteria causing the disease exist in water, lakes, and rivers. Over 100,000 deaths occur each year due to cholera. Different management systems are used to control the disease in which different vaccines are used like a rotavirus vaccine, Killed Oral Cholera Vaccine, which includes Dukoral, Shankol, and Euvichol. Different antibiotics used for control of disease and oral-radiation therapy are used to control the disease. Infectious diseases are avoided by taking different preventive measures like hygienic food and hygienic water.
Page: 129-132 (4)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Iqra Jamshaid
Impetigo is a skin infection which is caused by a bacterial strain of Streptococcus and Staphylococcus. Impetigo has two types, bullous impetigo, and nonbullous impetigo. Impetigo is more common in children however it can affect any age. It begins with a small pimple and ends with blisters which break the skin and thus cause infection. Treatment of impetigo includes topical antibiotics in which fusidic acid and mupirocin have used cream and can be applied on site of infection. Oral antibiotics include erythromycin, penicillin, and flucloxacillin. But the oral antibiotics are not as effective as topical antibiotics. But when the topical antibiotics show no results then oral antibiotic is used.
Page: 133-135 (3)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Sidra Noureen
Lyme disease is an infection that is caused by ticks and strains of bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi. The disease is transmitted to humans and also to the livestock and pets through ticks. Symptoms of this disease are headache, fever, and other skin infections. Diagnosis of this disease is difficult but can be diagnosed by ELISA and western blot tests. Different types of antibiotics are used for the treatment of Lyme disease. Through drugs and antibiotics, recovery begins sooner.
Page: 136-139 (4)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Fatima Rehan
Helicobacter pylori infection which is a constantly occurring disease causes damage to normal regulation and function of gastric acid. It was estimated that peptic ulcer infection was developed in about only 15% of persons that were infected with Helicobacter pylori. Burning, epigastric pain, and nocturnal pain after food intake are typical symptoms. Urea breath test, stool antigen test, or an endoscopic biopsy and ELISA may be performed as a diagnostic test for confirmation of occurrence of Helicobacter pylori infection in peptic ulcer patients. Management for peptic ulcer infection includes drug treatment and surgery.
Page: 140-142 (3)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Aleena Ahmad Somroo
Toxic shock syndrome is an uncommon but life-threatening disease which is caused by the poisonous endotoxin (TSS-1) produced by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Toxic shock syndrome was first described in children in the l976. This disease is more common in women than in men. Infection is caused due to the entrance of bacteria in the body through skin opening such as cuts or wounds or due to poorly conducted skin surgery, skin-burn, and skin infection. Prevalence of S.aureus colonization and antibodies by age, geographical area there was no significant difference found in the rate of toxigenicity and colonization while the population study prevalence was found to be 26%. Symptoms of TSS were skin rashes, headache, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, including neurological disturbance and the central nervous system disturbance along with organ failure. The diagnosis was done using Cole and Shakespeare's criteria proposed for toxic shock syndrome it can be also diagnosis from body fluids test and urine test. Management includes seven R’s which are very important for managing the toxic shock syndrome.
Page: 143-146 (4)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Iqra Ali Yameen
Scarlet fever is a bacterial disease caused by the streptococcus family. streptococcus pyogenes is an infectious agent in this disease. This bacteria produces streptococcal pyrogenic endotoxins SPEs that causes a red rash and high fever. Common symptoms seen in patients suffering from scarlet fever are swollen tonsils, high fever, red folding in arms, and elbows. Scarlet fever mostly occurs in children and sometimes it also affects adults. In past decades, the mortality rate due to scarlet fever was 10-25 percent but now it is reduced to 1% due to antibiotics. Diagnosis against scarlet fever is done by different methods like throat swab specimen detection and antigen screening method. For the treatment of scarlet fever, no vaccines are present. Antibiotics and hygienic lifestyle are recommended to lower the severity of scarlet fever.
Page: 147-150 (4)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Mahnoor Khan
Listeriosis is a foodborne disease. Bacteria of genus Listeria are responsible for this disease, especially Listeria monocytogenes which is a gram-positive bacterium and is active in the conditions needed to preserve food. The Mortality rate of listeriosis is 24%. Listeriosis is a serious threat to pregnant women and persons who are Immuno deficient. Symptoms of listeriosis are fever, flu, brain abscess, the tremor, Cranial nerve deficits, respiratory distress, jaundice, rash, or lethargy, etc. Diagnosis is done by culturing the organism from the blood and in the treatment, many antibiotics are given alone or sometimes in combination with two or more. Treatment of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) is given as alternate to patients who have allergies with using penicillin.
Page: 151-154 (4)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Irtiqa Masood
Meningitis is the inflammation of the membrane of meninges that is caused by a different microorganism. Bacterial meningitis is a lethal disease with the mortality rate in older adults is <20%. The bacteria start to replicate in the cerebrospinal fluid CSF and meninges and then infection takes place. It causes fever, headache, nausea, photophobia, vomiting, nuchal rigidity with complications of arthritis and hydrocephalus. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main cause of bacterial meningitis in older children. Different laboratory diagnosis like antigen screening, gram staining is used to test bacterial meningitis and antibiotics like chloramphenicol, gentamicin, tobramycin, second and third-generation cephalosporin, metronidazole, and rifampin are used against different bacterial microorganisms. Vaccines are available for 23 serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Page: 155-160 (6)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Mahreen Fatima
The term nosocomial can apply to that type of a disease that is acquired by a patient when he is under medical care. These types of infections are also known as HAI grow into patients when he stays at the hospital and taken supplementary types of medical facilities. It can be appeared in both cases either during hospitalization or after the time of discharge. Pathogens which are a major basis of such infections are called nosocomial pathogens. Worldwide, in healthcare systems, urinary tract infections are the most common complications. According to recent data, 30% of Nosocomial infections related to UT are caused by gram-negative bacteria.
Page: 161-165 (5)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Zunaira Akhtar
Campylobacteriosis is a foodborne illness caused by Campylobacter (C. jejuni), gram-negative bacteria, which cause diarrhea and other symptoms like fever pain and cramps. It transmits from food spoilage, untreated water, raw milk containing the bacteria, contact with pets, and farm animals having diarrhea. Person to person transmission is uncommon. It can be diagnosed by different techniques like the culture of bacteria taken from the bloody stool is the way for culture, molecular methods like a polymerase chain reaction, antigen testing, and DNA microarray. It can be managed by taking different precautionary measures, considering various hygienic rules, and through proper medication like antibiotics. But antibiotics are not preferred to those patients having a weak immune system and AIDS.
Page: 166-170 (5)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Afia Javaid
Brucellosis is an infectious disease caused by the species of bacteria Brucella. Animals are the primary host for bacteria; they are transferred from animals to humans (secondary host) by eating undercooked meat and unpasteurized dairy products. The symptom for brucellosis varies from mild like simple flu, fever, headache to acute like tissue and dysfunction of organs. Due to its complicated symptoms, the diagnosis of brucellosis is difficult but blood and bone marrow samples are still used for its diagnosis. Different techniques like culturing, molecular methods, and serological tests are used for its diagnosis. Antibiotics are used to prevent relapses and to minimize their symptoms. Antibiotics alone or the combination of two are used for the treatment of brucellosis. Other precautionary measures like safety and hygienic conditions should be considered to prevent disease.
Page: 171-175 (5)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Basra Manzoor
Trench fever is an infectious disease for which a specific form of bacteria Bartonella quintana is responsible. This infection is characterized by high fever occurring in a single attack or at repeated intervals of 4-5 days, headache, relapses and severe pain in legs and back. It may be diagnosed by culture test, serologic, biopsy, or PCR. Management for this infection is possible in immunologically strong patients by appropriate antibiotics and surgery.
Page: 176-179 (4)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Muhammad Mubashar Idrees
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) occurs due to inflammation of the urinary tract including bladder, urethra and kidneys by invading gram-negative bacteria especially E. coli. Signs and symptoms of UTI are fever, vomiting, nausea and irritation during urination. Clinical diagnosis is done by using a nitrite test and microbial culture on Cysteine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient (CLED) media plates. Penicillin, cephalosporin, carbapenem and some other antibiotics are used to cure this infection.
Page: 180-191 (12)
Author: Muhammad Imran Qadir
Bacterial Diseases provides readers an overview of a broad variety of bacterial infections. Chapters cover the description of specific disease and its causative agent, followed by information about symptoms, diagnosis and clinical management. This easy-to-read resource is a suitable introductory textbook for pharmacy, medical, and dental students, as well as M Phil, and Ph.D. candidates for Pharmacology, Botany, Zoology, Microbiology, Pharmacy, Biotechnology and allied health science programs. Readers interested in a simple clinical summary of bacterial diseases can also benefit from the information provided. Key Features: - Coverage of a broad spectrum of bacterial infections over 41 topical chapters - Easy-to-read presentation which provides a basic description of diseases covered to clinical diagnosis and management - Emphasis on the route of infection - References for further reading