Origins: A Short History of a Long Journey

Author(s): Maciej Henneberg and Arthur Saniotis

Pp: 5-8 (4)

DOI: 10.2174/9781681082356116010004

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


In this chapter, the briefest possible description of changes that are crucial for differentiation of humans from their closest animal relatives is given. The erect bipedalism, freeing hands from locomotor duties, seems to have appeared first in the process of evolution leading to humans, several million years ago. The causes are not clear – they may be wading in shallow waters on the edges of inland lakes and rivers or chasing prey animals across savannahs. The appearance of the ability to produce sounds of articulate speech – lowering the position of the larynx in the throat – appeared next, though it is difficult to determine when. This ability to produce sounds as units of the arbitrary symbolic communication opened up great possibilities for communication and exchange of technologically and socially relevant information that facilitated the management of environment by humans.

Keywords: Erect bipedalism, Future, Genetic engineering, Language, Stone Age, Tools.

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